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Gündogdu, Birol, Dr.

28024 | | Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter

Dr. Birol Gündogdu

Dr. Birol Gündogdu
Historisches Institut, Osteuropäische Geschichte

Otto-Behaghel-Str. 10, D-35394 Gießen, Haus D Raum 205

Sprechzeiten: Mo 13:00-14:00 Uhr [Sprechzeiten / aktuelle Mitteilungen]

Tel: 0049-641-99-28024

Inhalt: Biographie | Forschungsschwerpunkte | Publikationen | Habilitationsthema | Lehrveranstaltungen | Tagungsberichte und Vorträge | Sprachkenntnisse


Seit Oktober 2013 Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter, Historisches Institut, Osteuropäische Geschichte

Seit Februar 2013 Assistent am Lehrstuhl für Islamische Geschichte und Gegenwartskultur, Zentrum für Islamische Theologie, Universität Tübingen

2012 Dissertation, Fakultät der Zivilisationen des Nahen und Mittleren Ostens, Universität Toronto, Toronto, ON Canada: Ottoman Constructions of Morea Rebellion, 1770s: A Comprehensive Study for Attitudes to the Greek Uprising

September 2011 - Februar 2012 Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter, Fakultät für Geschichte, McMaster Universität, Hamilton, Kanada

2005 Master of Arts, Fakultät für Europäische Geschichte, Bilkent Universität, Ankara, Türkei

September 2002 - August 2005 Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter, Fakultät für Europäische Geschichte, Bilkent Universität, Türkei

2002 Bachelor of Arts, TU des Mittleren Ostens, Ankara, Türkei Unterrichts- und Forschungserfahrung


→ Seitenanfang  &nbsp → Biographie



  • Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches mit Schwerpunkt 18. und 19. Jahrhundert
  • Islamische Geschichte
  • Ost-West-Begegnung
  • Osmanisches Millet-System
  • Griechischer Unabhängigkeitskrieg
  • Geschichte des Balkans
  • Widerstand in der frühen Neuzeit
  • Osmanisches Urkundenwesen und Paläographie
  • Europäische Geschichte
  • Geschichte der Republik Türkei

→ Seitenanfang  &nbsp → Forschungsschwerpunkte



  • "A Boiling Cauldron of Conflicts and Cooperation: the Question of Two Distinct Societies during and after the Morea Rebellion of 1770." In International Journal of Turkish Studies. October, 2014, 67-84.
  • "The Question of Ottoman Ignorance before the Morea Rebellion of 1770: A Challenge to Widely Accepted Belief in the Light of New Ottoman Documents." In Middle Eastern Studies. September 29, 2014, 1-16.
  • "Probleme in Der Chronologie Des Lebens Des Propheten Muhammad." In Muhammad: Ein Prophet - Viele Facetten, edited by Yașar Sarιkaya, Mark Chalîl Bodenstein and Erdal Toprakyaran, 329-338. Berlin Lit, 2014.

→ Seitenanfang  &nbsp → Publikationen



"Turkish Jews during the late Ottoman and early Republican Eras: the Unionist and Kemalist Ways of Converting Jewish Millet into Members of Modern State between 1913 and 1933"

Ottoman millet system and the rights of Ottoman minorities including Orthodox Greeks, and Armenians as well as Jews and others are of high interest to almost all Ottoman historians as being connected with Ottoman nations and its religious affiliations. Even though the empire implemented some fundamental changes in the millet system through the reformations of 19th century, the Ottoman millet system more or less remained unchanged until the era of Young Turks, who for the first time deeply tried to replace religion with "science". As a former member of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) Mustafa Kemal shared common goals and aspiration with leading members of the CUP. Despite the fact that his disagreements with the leadership of the CUP during and after the World War I are generally emphasized in Turkey's official history the close ties between reforms of Republican era and those of the Young Turks are more than obvious. To what extent the Kemalist reforms and calls for the restoration of an Islamic worldview are traceable and measurable in former implementations of the CUP is a subject of intense research and debate, which is well beyond the scope of a single study. Suffice it to say, however, that today's scholars are far from taking the official explanation for granted the way some Kemalist historians eagerly have tended to do for such a long time.

Alongside the other millets the Jews were also organised as a community based on the basis of religion under a single religious authority. As compared to first Greek and then Armenian nations/millets with their huge public or organized expression of separatist intention, the Turkish Jews did never become one of the top priorities in the late Ottoman and early Republican eras and therefore were generally paid little attention. In defiance of this fact, as pioneers of the Zionist, a group of Russian Jews sought to ways to negotiate with Ottoman state to get a millet like settlement in the late 19th and 20th centuries, which would grant them some kind of autonomy (yet not sovereignty). In its beginning it can be seen as an attempt to get much greater independence rather than a total rejection of the Ottoman millet system. Similarly, the Jews in the new Republic of Turkey preferred to negotiate and even cooperate with the political system of Turkey, which was step by step designed to establish a secular, modern nation-state. Nevertheless, both the leading members of the CUP and Mustafa Kemal had a different agenda in mind, which largely diverged from both that of the Ottoman ancient regime and that of the Jews.

The Bab-i Ali coup, which took place on 23th January 1913, became an important milestone in later definition of the Ottoman millet system. This coup d'état not only profoundly empowered the power of the CUP but also strengthened of its reform movements towards Ottoman centralization by giving de facto power to a dictatorial triumvirate known as the Three Pashas i.e., Talat Bey, Enver Bey and Cemal Bey, In a similar vein, ten years later establishment of the Republic of Turkey on 29th October 1923 opened the way for the beginning of one man leadership, Mustafa Kemal, who was both quite familiar with the policies of these Three Pashas and had one way or another taken part in the implementation of the many CUP's projects before. In this respect, the similarities as well as the differences between a former member of the CUP and its three leading members are of high significance as dealing with transformation of ancient millet system to modern nation state. This real, relative and sometimes nominal connection(s) between the Unionist and Republican eras in Turkey by all means lost of its importance after 1933s when we started to see early stages of Jewish persecutions first in Germany and then other states of the world (including Turkey in the course of time). Henceforth, the Turkish Jews under the Republic of Turkey after 1933 can only be explained in relation with other international actors/factors instead of dominantly domestic program(s) of the (former) Turkish reformists.

Taken all into consideration, this project is going to focus on the Jews of Turkey as being either with the government(s) of late Ottoman state or that of the new Republic [or against both] in two decades between 1913 and 1933. This is particularly an attempt to look at the diversity of Jewish society under Ottoman/Turkish rule and to identify continuity and change in Turkish approaches to the Jews 10 years before and after the establishment of the Republic of Turkey [first as zimmis of late Ottoman millet and then ?citizen? of the new nationalist state]. The departure point of this study is not to reveal changing Jewish definition of the Ottoman/Turkish masters but rather to determine what kind of role was given to the Turkish Jews to play in the late Ottoman and early Republican eras by the Unionists and the Kemalists. On balance, this study can be read as a further attempt to uncover similarities and differences between two radical reform movements in Turkey on the specific example of the Jewish community, which has been largely understudied as I would like to argue in the forthcoming project of mine.


→ Seitenanfang  &nbsp → Habilitationsthema



  • SS 2014 Osmanische Kultur und Zivilisation
  • WS 2013-2014 Islamische Kultur und Zivilisation
  • WS 2013/14 - Quellenkunde zur Geschichte Südosteuropas: Analyse osmanischer Quellen nach 1800, Gießen
  • WS 2013/14 - Prophetenbiographie und Islamische Geschichte und Zivilisation, Tübingen
  • WS 2010/2011 - Türkisch, Universität Toronto, Kanada
  • September 2009 - Dezember 2009 - Türkisch für Fortgeschrittene, Universität Toronto, Kanada
  • Januar 2010 - Mai 2010 - Osmanische Paläographie und Türkische Literatur, Universität Toronto, Kanada
  • September 2002 - August 2005 - Zivilisationsgeschichte, Bilkent Universität, Türkei

→ Seitenanfang  &nbsp → Lehrveranstaltungen


Tagungsberichte und Vorträge

  • "A Story of Ottoman Success or Failure in the Peloponnese prior to the Greek Insurrection of 1770? An Attempt to Distinguish between Myths and Facts on the Issue of Ottoman Incompetence" WOCMES 2014-World Congress for Middle East Studies, Middle Eastern Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, August 18-22, 2014.
  • "The Ottoman Approach to the Greek Insurrection of the 1770's - An Attempt to Clear Up Some Misconceptions about Imperial Attitudes of that Time." Turkologentag, Society for Turkic, Ottoman and Turkish Studies (GTOT), Munich, Germany, February 11, 2014.
  • "Ottoman Transition of Power between the Years 1683 and 1750s: A Struggle for Sovereignty among Ottoman Sultans, Newly Emerged Muslim and non-Muslim Elites." The 12th International Congress of Ottoman Social and Economic History (ICOSEH), Retz, Austria, July 10-16, 2011.
  • "Ottoman Approach to Muslim and Non-Muslim Elites of the Empire between 1750s and 1770s: An Attempt to Understand Roles of Ottoman Policies in the Emergence of Powerful Notables." The 15th Annual Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations' Symposium, Toronto, Canada, March 2-3, 2011.

→ Seitenanfang  &nbsp → Tagungsberichte und Vorträge



  • Türkisch, Englisch, Deutsch, Französisch, Osmanisch, Arabisch

→ Seitenanfang  &nbsp → Sprachkenntnisse