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Project part A: "National Atlas of Georgia"

Aim of the Atlas project part

A first “National Atlas of Georgia” has been published in the year 2012 in Georgian language by the Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography at the Ivane Javakhashvili Tbilisi State University in Tbilisi (TSU).

The outstanding quality of this publication excited the strong wish of national and international experts to make this outstanding publication also available in English for an international audience. Moreover, and according to the fast development of Georgia in the recent years, it was compulsory to reassess some maps and tables according to the results of the 2014 census and other updated statistics. The Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography gladly agreed to take over the responsibility for this ambitious project for the Frankfurt Buchmesse 2018, where Georgia is guest of honor.

The Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography at TSU is the leading institution for the successful compilation of several atlases for the past decades. Among others, the following oeuvres were prepared and published:

  • Atlas of Georgian USSR (in Georgian and Russian), 1964.
  • Atlas of Resorts and Resort Resources of Georgia, 1989.
  • School Geographical Atlas of Georgia, 1992.
  • School Thematic Maps of Georgia, 1964-2013.
  • Atlas of Georgia by Vakhushti Bagrationi (18th century), 1997

Moreover, the Institute’s employees were involved in the publication of:

  • National Atlas of Cuba, 1970.
  • Atlas of the World's Snow-Ice Resources, 1997.

The English language version of the National Atlas of Georgia will contain about 120 maps at the scales from 1:1 000 000 up to 1:3 000 000, all compiled at the Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography in Tbilisi. Diagrams, charts and tables will be used to better express the dynamics of natural and economic processes in time and space.

The Department of Geography at Justus Liebig University Giessen is the German partner organization. This institution has also a long tradition of map and atlas development as shown exemplarily by:

  • Industrieatlas Mittelhessen – Ausgabe 1994 (Bathelt & Erb)
  • Gewerbestandort Atlas für den Bezirk der IHK zu Dillenburg, 1995
  • National Atlas of Afghanistan, 2014
  • Numerous topographic and thematic maps for research projects.

Structure of the National Atlas of Georgia

Georgia is the mountainous country located in the central part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. About 60% of the country’s territory is located higher than 1000 meters above sea level. Despite its small area of 69 700 km2, very diverse climates and natural landscapes are represented: the subtropical zone of western Georgia along the Black Sea, the dry steppes of eastern Georgia and the nival-glacial zone of the country’s northern part in the mountain ranges of the Great Caucasus with mountain peaks reaching altitudes of more than 5000 meters above sea level. The country is rich in hydrological and agricultural resources.

Georgia is a multi-ethnic country with a population of about 3.7 million (Geostat, 2015). Georgia’s different climates result in a wide spectrum concerning agriculture, settlements and life styles. Georgia’s traditional treasures for at least the last hundred years have always been agriculture and tourism, attracted by the fascinating landscapes and the rich cultural heritage. The National Atlas reflects most vividly and widely the country's geographical location, environmental conditions, natural and human resources, economic potential and their changes in time, and it will contribute to the evaluation and rational use of the country’s resource potential. The respective information contains:

  1. Geographic location of Georgia, geopolitical location, political-administrative division.
  2. Historical maps showing the formation of Georgia’s territory, including archaeological and architectural monuments.
  3. Natural conditions of Georgia’s landscapes, including relief, geomorphology, geological structure, tectonics, paleo-geographical peculiarities, hydrogeology, hydrography, climate, flora and fauna, soils.
  4. Natural resources, including minerals, agro-climatic and climatic resources, water, soil , recreation , forestry and hydropower resources.
  5. Population, economy, social sphere: Population structure, population dynamics, composition, populated places, industrial enterprises, agriculture, recreation economy, transportation, communication, construction, international organizations, service spheres, trade, education, science, health care, income, electronic geography, publication business.
  6. Geoecological hazards, including landslides, mudflows, snow-avalanches, floods and inundation, erosion, water and atmosphere pollution, protected territories.

The comprehensive information given by the National Atlas will assist all persons interested in studying the nature and culture of Georgia, and those who wish to contribute to further development of Georgia, scientists as well as entrepreneurs and developers.

List of contributors of the atlas

Editorial board

 


List of contributors to the national atlas

Compiling and publishing a national atlas requires the support, talents and cooperation of many individuals and institutions. Our sincere appreciation goes to:


Text authors

Asanidze Lasha Karst
Bolashvili Nana Preface; Georgia: Balcony of Europe and Intersection of Cultures (English text); Hydrology; Climate
Bukhnikashvili Alexander Fauna
Chkhikvadze Nestan The Georgian Alphabet (Script)
Dittmann Andreas Preface; Georgia: Balcony of Europe and Intersection of Cultures (German text)
Gachechiladze Revaz Georgia in Political Space
Gamkrelidze Gela Archaeological Sites of Prehistoric and Classical Periods
Gamkrelidze Irakli Geology; Tectonics
Gaprindashvili George Landslides; Debrisflows
Geladze Vakhtang Hydrology
Gobejishvili Ramin Geomorphology; Glaciers
Karalashvili Tamazi Hydrology
King Lorenz Preface; Georgia: Balcony of Europe and Intersection of Cultures (German text)
Khomeriki Giorgi Population; Economy
Lezhava Zaza Karst
Lominadze George Morphology and Dynamics of the Coastal Zone
Lortkipanidze David Dmanisi Archaeological Site
Mumladze Dali Climate
Muskhelishvili David History
Neidze Vazha Preface; Georgia: Balcony of Europe and Intersection of Cultures (English text); Population; Cities; Sport
Papashvili Irakli Morphology and Dynamics of the Coastal Zone
Pavliashvili Nino Tourism
Salukvadze Elene Tourism
Shetekauri Shamil Flora
Tielidze Levan Geomorphology; Glaciers
Tsereteli Emil Geomorphology; Landslides; Debrisflows
Tsikarishvili Kukuri Karst
Tutberidze Bejan Neogene and Pleistocene Volcanism
Tutberidze Mzia Tourism


Authors of maps (the numbers refer to the page numbers of the national atlas)

Asanidze Lasha 32; 33
(Aslanikashvili Alexander) 103
Basilashvili Tsisana 55b; 62; 63
Berdzenishvili Devi 132; 133
Bolashvili Nana 58
(Buachidze Guram) 16-17
Bukhnikashvili Alexander 80; 81; 82
Chanishvili George 118
Chichinadze Tamar 50; 81; 82; 83; 96-97; 118 (insert map); 119a; 119b; 122, 123 (schemes)
Chkhikvadze Nestan 123
Chochua Leri 75
Dolidze Jemal 51a; 52a; 54a; 54b; 55a
Dondua Lamara 51a; 54a; 54b; 55a
Gachechiladze Revaz X
(Gagnidze Revaz) 73
(Gagua Givi) 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 50; 53b; 57
Gagua Mariami 96-97
Gamkrelidze Gela 120; 121
Gamkrelidze Irakli 10; 11; 12-13; 14-15
Gaprindashvili George 28-29; 30-31; 33; 38; 39; 40; 41
Geladze Vakhtang 58; 59; 60; 61a
Ghambashidze George 74
Giorgadze Grigol 126b, 126c
(Gobejishvili Ramin) 20; 26; 27; 28-29; 30-31; 39; 41; 52b; 68-69; 70
Gogishvili Nani 51a; 54a; 54b; 55a
Gogichaishvili Gizo 51b; 53a
Gongadze Merab 43
Gulashvili Zaza 105; 106
Gvasalia Jondo 132; 133
(Javakhishvili Alexander) 59; 60; 61a; 64; 65; 95
(Jordania Revaz) 82
(Kaldani Vladimer) 42; 52b
Karalashvili Tamazi 58
Kartvelishvili Liana 52a
Kavlashvili George 37a; 37b
Kharadze Koba 116-117
Khomeriki Giorgi 84; 86; 87; 90; 91; 98-99; 101; 102; 109b; 118 (insert map); 118
Kokosadze Temur 83
Kordzakhia Mitropane 56
Kumladze Roman 85; 86; 87; 91
Lezhava Zaza 32; 33
Liparteliani Guliko 21; 100; 107a; 109a
Lominadze George 34; 36a; 36b
Lomidze Nino 52b; 53b; 56
Lortkipanidze David 122
Machavariani Nino 61b
Maruashvili Levan 22a; 22b; 23a; 23b
Matchavariani Lia 74
Meladze George 85; 86; 87
Meladze Givi 108a; 108b
Mumladze Dali 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 56
Muskhelishvili David 124-125; 126a; 127; 128; 129
Mkheidze Badri 16-17; 18-19
Neidze Vazha 84; 85; 86; 87; 88-89; 90; 91; 92; 104; 109b; 114; 115
Nikolaishvili Dali 77; 78a; 78b; 79; 107b
Papashvili Irakli 34; 36a; 36b
Pavliashvili Nino 110; 112-113
Salukvadze Elene 110
Salukvadze Manana 42; 52b
Sologashvili Nato 100;  107a; 109a; 101 (insert map)
Shetekauri Shamil 72; 73
Sikharulidze Iuri 132; 133
(Sukhishvili Eter) 55b
Suknidze Nikoloz 88-89; 90
Tielidze Levan 28-29; 68-69; 70; 71
Tordia Avtandil 130-131; 132; 133
Tordia Tengiz 132; 133
Tskhakaia Tamar 83; 96-97
Tsereteli Emil 20; 26; 28-29; 30-31; 38; 39; 40; 41
Tsikarishvili Kukuri 32; 33
Tsintsadze Zurab 134-135, 136
Tutberidze Bejan 24
Tutberidze Mzia 110; 111
Urushadze Tengiz 74
Zautashvili Berdo 16-17; 18-19


The technical team of TSU Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography accomplished their professional work with great and unending enthusiasm and dedication: Lasha  Asanidze, David Beroshvili, Tamila Chaladze, Tamar Chicinadze, Nino Chikhradze, Sofiko Dzhvarsheishvili, Lela Gadrali, Manana Goglidze, George Gaprindashvili, Nana Getiashvili, David Kartvelishvili, George Kavlashvili, Mikheil Khabazishvili, Tamar Khardziani,  Roman Kumladze, Nino Lomidze, Nato Sologashvili, Nikoloz Suknidze, Levan Tielidze,  Mariam Tsitsagi


Consultants

The editors are very grateful to several consultants who accompanied the development of the atlas with their advice in all aspects, from concept to layout, from wording to terminology: Giorgi Cheishvili, Zurab Javakhishvili, Besik Kalandadze, Tamaz Karalashvili, Revaz Khazaradze, Levan Kutateladze, Vasil Liparteliani, Philipp Koch, Jürg Rohner, Elene Salukvadze, Tea Shelia, Aslan Suladze, Kukuri Tavartkiladze, Nana Zautashvili

Contents of the National Atlas of Georgia

maps and texts

PREFIX

 

VORSPANN

Preface VII Vorwort
Contents VIII-IX Inhalt
Diplomatic Relations
(Insert map: Foreign Embassies in Tbilisi)
X Diplomatische Beziehungen
(Zusatzkarte: Ausländische Botschaften in Tiflis)
  

I. GENERAL

 

I. ALLGEMEINES

Georgia in Political Space (Text) 1 Georgien im politischen Raum (Text in Englisch)
Georgia: Balcony of Europe and Intersection of Cultures (Text in English) 2 Georgien: Balkon Europas und Schnittstelle der Kulturen (Text in Deutsch)
Georgia in Europe 3 Georgien in Europa
Political-Geographical Location of Georgia 3 Politisch-geographische Lage von Georgien
Caucasus 4-5 Kaukasus
Georgia 6-7 Georgien
Administrative Division
(Insert map: Historical-Geographical Provinces)
8-9 Administrative Gliederung
(Zusatzkarte: historisch-geographische Provinzen)
  

II. GEOLOGY

10

II. GEOLOGIE

Geology (Text) 10 Geologie (Text in Englisch)
Tectonics (Text) 11 Tektonik (Text in Englisch)
Geology 12-13 Geologie
Tectonics 14-15 Tektonik
Hydrogeology 16-17 Hydrogeologie
Mineral Waters 18-19 Mineralwasser
Quaternary Sediments 20 Quartäre Sedimente
Mineral Resources 21 Naturräumliche Ressourcen
Upper Oligocene 22 Oberoligozän
The End of Upper Miocene 22 Ende des Obermiozän
Upper Pliocene 23 Oberpliozän
Mindel-Riss Interglacial 23 Mindel-Riss-Interglazial
Neogene and Pleistocene Volcanism 24 Vulkanismus im Neogen und Pleistozän
Earthquakes 25 Erdbeben
  
III. GEOMORPHOLOGY AND NATURAL HAZARDS 26 III. GEOMORPHOLOGIE UND NATURGEFAHREN
Geomorphology (Text) 26 Geomorphologie (Text in Englisch)
Orographic Scheme 27 Orographie Georgiens
Geomorphology 28-29 Geomorphologie
Exogenous Processes 30-31 Exogene Prozesse
Karst (Text) 32 Karst (Text in Englisch)
Karst 33 Karst
Morphology and Dynamics of the Coastal Zone (Text) 34 Morphologie und Dynamik der Küstenzone (Text in Englisch)
Black Sea 35 Schwarzes Meer
Coastal Morphology 36 Küsten-Geomorphologie
Coastal Dynamics 36 Küsten-Dynamik
River Enguri Submarine Canyon 37 Enguri Fluss, Submarine Canyon
River Rioni Submarine Canyon 37 Rioni Fluss, Submarine Canyon
Landslides (Text) 38 Erdrutsch (Text in Englisch)
Landslides 39 Erdrutsch
Debrisflows (Text) 40 Murgang (Text in Englisch)
Debrisflows 41 Murgang
Avalanche Risk 42 Lawinengefahr
Anthropogenic Impact Intensity on the Landforms 43 Auswirkungen menschlicher Tätigkeit auf Landschaftsformen
  
IV. CLIMATE 44 IV. KLIMA
Climate (Text) 44 Klima (Text in Englisch)
Annual Average Air Temperature 45 Lufttemperatur (Jahresmittel)
Annual Average Absolute Maximum Air Temperature 46 Maximum der Lufttemperatur (Jahresmittel)
Annual Average Absolute Minimum Air Temperature 47 Minimum der Lufttemperatur (Jahresmittel)
Annual Average Air Temperature, January 48 Lufttemperatur, Mittel des Monats Januar
Annual Average Air Temperature, July 49 Lufttemperatur, Mittel des Monats Juli
Growing Degree Days (10°C Base Threshold) 50 Vegetationszeit (10°C-Grenzwert)
Annual Average Sunshine Duration 51 Sonnenscheindauer (Jahresmittel)
Aridity Index 51 Ariditätsindex (Trockenheit)
Annual Average Sum Precipitation 52 Niederschlag (Jahresmittel)
Annual Average Snow Cover Height 52 Höhe der Schneedecke (Jahresmittel)
Annual Average Evaporation 53 Evaporation (Jahresmittel)
Humidity Index 53 Feuchteindex
Annual Average Thunderstorm Days 54 Tage mit Gewitter (Jahresmittel)
Annual Average Number of Hail Days 54 Tage mit Hagel (Jahresmittel)
Annual Average Days of Fog 55 Tage mit Nebel (Jahresmittel)
Annual Average Wind Speed and Direction 55 Windgeschwindigkeit und –richtung (Jahresmittel)
Climate Types 56 Klimatypen
Agroclimatic Zonality 57 Agroklimatische Zonen
  

V. HYDROLOGY

58

V. HYDROLOGIE

Hydrology (Text) 58 Hydrologie (Text in Englisch)
Average Annual Runoff 59 Jährlicher Abfluss (Jahresmittel)
Average Annual Runoff Distribution by Basins 60 Abfluss der Flusseinzugsgebiete (Jahresmittel)
Runoff Distribution by Regions 61 Abflussverteilung nach Regionen
Rivers Turbidity 61 Schwebstoffführung der Flüsse
Territorial Zonality by Annual Runoff 62 Hochwasserverteilung, Periode und Zonalität
Flooding Runoff 63 Hochwasserabfluss
Subsurface Runoff 64 Unterirdischer Abfluss
Snow and Glacier Melting Flow 65 Abflussanteil von Schnee- und Gletscherschmelze
Hydrography 66-67 Gewässernetz
 

VI. GLACIERS

68

VI. GLETSCHER

Glaciers (Text) 68-69 Gletscher (Text in Englisch)
Modern and Late Pleistocene Glaciers 70 Heutige und spätpleistozäne Gletscher
Glacier Change in the Enguri River Basin 71 Gletscherdynamik, Enguri-Flusseinzugsgebiet
 

VII. ENVIRONMENT

72

VII. UMGEBUNG

Vegetation (Text) 72 Vegetation (Text in Englisch)
Vegetation 73 Vegetation
Soils 74 Bödentypen
Forests 75 Waldtypen
Landscape (Photos) 76 Landschaften (Fotos)
Landscapes
(Insert map: Landscapes Diversity)
77 Landschaftstypen
(Zusatzkarte: Landschaftsvielfalt)
Phyto Resources of Landscapes 78 Pflanzliche Ressourcen der Landschaften
Forestry of Landscapes 78 Waldbedeckung
Sustainability of Landscapes 79 Nachhaltigkeit der Landschaften
Fauna (Text) 80 Fauna (Text in Englisch)
Mammals
(Insert map: Amphibians and Reptiles)
81 Säugetiere
(Zusatzkarte: Amphibien und Reptilien)
Birds 82 Vögel
Fishes 83 Fische
 

VII. SOCIETY

84

VII. GESELLSCHAFT

a) Population (Text) 84 a) Population (Text in Englisch)
Birth Rate 85 Geburtenrate
Death Rate 86 Sterberate
Natural Increase
(Insert diagram: Change of Natural Increase by Provinces (1989-2016)
87 Natürlicher Geburtenzuwachs
(Zusatzdiagramm: Geburtenzuwachsänderung nach Provinzen, 1989-2016)
Settlements
(Insert map: Population of Urban and Rural Settlements by Provinces)
88-89 Siedlungen
(Zusatzkarte: Bevölkerung städtischer und ländlicher Siedlungen nach Provinzen)
Rural Population
(Insert map: Rural Population Dynamics by Provinces)
90 Ländliche Bevölkerungsdichte
(Zusatzkarte: Ländliche  Bevölkerungsdynamik nach Provinzen)
Ethnicities
(Insert map: Change of Ethnic Structure of Population by Provinces. 1959-2014)
91 Ethnizitäten
(Zusatzkarte: Änderung der ethnischen Struktur der
Bevölkerung in Georgien, 1959-2014)
Cities (Text) 92 Städte (Text in Englisch)
Tbilisi 93 Tbilisi
Kutaisi, Batumi 94 Kutaisi, Batumi
Sokhumi 95 Sokhumi
Distribution of Refugees 95 Verteilung von Flüchtlingen
Eparchies of Georgian Orthodox Church 96-97 Bistümer der Georgisch Orthodoxen Kirche
b) Economy (Text) 98-99 b) Wirtschaft (Text in Englisch)
Energetics 100 Energieproduktion
Industry
(Insert map: Population Release by the Provinces (Mln. GEL)
101 Industrie
(Zusatzkarte: Wertschöpfung nach Provinzen in Mio. GEL)
Transport
(Insert map: Georgian Railway Network Development)
102 Verkehr
(Zusatzkarte: Entwicklung des georgischen Eisenbahnnetzes)
Agriculture Specialization 103 Landwirtschaftliche Spezialisierung
Agricultural Land Structure 104 Agrarlandstruktur
Plant Growing 105 Pflanzenproduktion
Animal Breeding 106 Viehzucht
Viticulture 107 Weinanbaugebiete (Weinsorten)
Ancient and Modern Grape Varieties 107 Klassische und neue Weintraubenvarietäten
Citrus Distribution Areas 108 Gebiete mit Anbau von Zitrusfrüchten
Tunga Distribution Areas 108 Gebiete mit Anbau des Holzölbaums (Tung)
Winemaking 109 Weingegenden
(Zusatzkarte: Weinexport)
Foreign Trade 109 Aussenhandel
d) Tourism (Text) 110 d) Tourismus (Text in Englisch)
Hotel Industry 111 Hotellerie
Touristic-Recreational Resources 112-113 Erholungsorte (Tourismus)
Sport (Text) 114 Sport (Text in Englisch)
Sport 115 Sport
Protected Areas and Monuments of Nature 116-117 Schutzgebiete und Naturdenkmäler
Monuments of Architecture
(Insert map: UNESCO World Heritage Monuments)
118 Baudenkmäler der Architektur
(Zusatzkarte: UNESCO-Weltkulturerbestätten)
Museums 119 Museen
Tbilisi Museums 119 Museen in Tiflis
f) Archaeological Sites of Prehistoric and Classical Periods (Text) 120 f) Archäologische Stätten der Prähistorischen und Klassischen Zeit (Text in Englisch)
Archaeological Sites 121 Archäologische Stätten
Dmanisi Archaeological Site (Text) 122 Dmanisi (Archäologische Stätte) (Text in Englisch)
The Georgian Alphabet (Script) (Text) 123 Das georgische Alphabet (Text in Englisch)
 

VIII. HISTORY

124

VIII. GESCHICHTE

The History of Georgia (Text) 124-125 Die Geschichte Georgiens (Text in Englisch)
Georgia in the 6th-3rd cc. B.C. 126 Georgien im 6. bis 3. Jahrhundert v. Chr.
East Asia Minor at the End of the 12th c. B.C. 126 Kleinasien am Ende des 12. Jahrhunderts v. Chr.
East Asia Minor at the Beginning of First Millennium B.C. 126 Kleinasien zu Beginn des 1. Jahrtausends v. Chr.
Georgia in the Second Half of the 5th c. 127 Georgien in der 2. Hälfte des 5. Jahrhunderts
Georgia in the Second Half of the 10th c. 128 Georgien in der 2. Hälfte des 10. Jahrhunderts
Georgia in 1125 129 Georgien um 1125
Georgia in the First Third of the 13th c. 130-131 Georgien im ersten Drittel des 13. Jahrhunderts
Georgia in the Last Third of the 15th c. 132 Georgien im letzten Drittel des 15. Jahrhunderts
Georgia in the First Half of the 17th c. 133 Georgien in der 1. Hälfte des 17. Jahrhunderts
Georgia in 1801 134-135 Georgien um 1801
Georgia in the End of the 19th c. 136 Georgien zu Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts
 

AUTHORS AND CONSULTANTS

135

AUTOREN  UND BERATER