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Knauff, M., & Gazzo Castañeda, L.E. (2023): Authors’ response: how are beliefs represented in the mind?, Thinking & Reasoning, DOI:


Gazzo Castañeda, L. E., Sklarek, B., Dal Mas, D. E., & Knauff, M. (2023). Probabilistic and deductive reasoning in the human brain. NeuroImage, 275, 120180. DOI:



Gazzo Castañeda, L.E., & Knauff, M. (2022). Specificity effects in reasoning with counterintuitive and arbitrary conditionals. Memory & Cognition, 50, 366–377.

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Knauff, M., & Spohn, W. (2021). The Handbook of Rationality. The MIT Press.

Gazzo Castañeda, L. E., & Knauff, M. (2021). Specificity effects in reasoning with counterintuitive and arbitrary conditionals. Memory & Cognition, 1-12.


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Knauff, M., & Gazzo Castañeda, L. E. (2021). When nomenclature matters: Is the “new paradigm” really a new paradigm for the psychology of reasoning?. Thinking & Reasoning, 1-30.

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Colombo, M., & Knauff, M. (2020), Editors’ Review and Introduction: Levels of Explanation in Cognitive Science: From Molecules to Culture. Top Cogn Sci. doi:10.1111/tops.12503


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Gazzo Castañeda, L. E., & Knauff, M. (2020), Everyday reasoning with unfamiliar conditionals, Thinking & Reasoning, doi: 10.1080/13546783.2020.1823478


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Gazzo Castañeda; L. E., & Knauff, M (2019). The
specificity of terms affects conditional reasoning, Thinking & Reasoning pdfPDF

Hamburger, K., & Knauff, M. (2019), Odors Can Serve as Landmarks in Human Wayfinding. Cogn Sci, 43: e12798. doi:10.1111/cogs.12798


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Surgical Endoscopy 9/2020 Mathias, A. P., Vogel, P., & Knauff, M. (2019). Different cognitive styles can affect performance in laparoscopic surgery skill training. Surgical endoscopy, doi: 10.1007/s00464-019-07267-y. pdfPDF




Hinterecker, T., Knauff, M.,& Johnson-Laird, P.N. (2019). How to infer possibilities: A reply to Oaksford et al. (2018). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and CognitionpdfPDF
Hamburger, K., Ragni, M., Karimpur, H., Franzmeier, I., Wedell, F., & Knauff, M. (2018). TMS applied to V1 can facilitate reasoning. Experimental Brain Research (2018), 236:2277–2286  pdfPDF

Gazzo Castaneda, L. E., & Knauff, M. (2018). Quantifying disablers in reasoning with universal and existential rules. Thinking & Reasoning, 24, 344-365. pdfPDF





Balaban, C. Z., Karimpur, H., Röser, F., & Hamburger, K. (2017). Turn left where you felt unhappy: How affect influences landmark-based wayfinding. Cognitive Processing, 18(2), 135–144. pdfPDF




Gazzo Castaneda, L. E., Richter, B., & Knauff, M. (2016). Negativity bias in defeasible reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning, 22, 209-220.PDF
Hinterecker, T., Knauff, M., & Johnson-Laird, P. N. (2016, February 29). Modality, probability, and mental models. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. Advance online publication. PDF
Ragni, M., Franzmeier, I., Maier, S., & Knauff, M. (2016). Uncertain relational reasoning in the parietal cortex. Brain and Cognition, 104, 72-81.PDF

Gazzo Castaneda, L. E., & Knauff, M. (2016). When will is not the same as should: The role of modals in reasoning with legal conditionals. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69, 1480-1497. pdfPDF

Gazzo Castaneda, L. E., & Knauff, M. (2016). Defeasible reasoning with legal conditionals. Memory and Cognition, 44(3), 499-517. PDF




Nejasmic, J., Bucher, L., & Knauff, M. (2015). Grounded spatial belief revision.  Acta Psychologica, 157, 144-154. doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2015.02.008 PDFPDF

Nejasmic, J., Bucher, L., & Knauff, M. (2015). The construction of spatial mental models-A new view on the continuity effect. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, DOI:10.1080/17470218.2014.991335 PDFPDF





Knauff, M., & Nejasmic, J. (2014). An Efficiency Comparison of Document Preparation Systems Used in Academic Research and Development. Plos One, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115069. Link

Jung, N., Wranke, C., Hamburger, K., & Knauff, M. (2014). How emotions affect
logical reasoning: Evidence from experiments with mood-manipulated participants,
spider phobics, and people with exam anxiety. Frontiers in Emotion
Science, 5, 1- 12. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00570.


Bucher, L., Kaller, C., Unterrainer, J., Rahm, B., & Knauff, M. (2013). Neuronale
Grundlagen komplexer Kognition. In: E. Schröger & S. Kölsch (Hrsg.). Affektive
und Kognitive Neurowissenschaft. Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Themenbereich
C, Bd. 5, Kognition (pp. 363 – 430). Göttingen: Hogrefe.

Hamburger, K., & Röser, F. (2014). The role of landmark modality and familiarity in human wayfinding. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 73(4), 205-213.




Knauff, M. (2013). Space to Reason: A Spatial Theory of Human Thought. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Ragni, M., & Knauff, M. (2013). A theory and a computional model of spatial reasoning with preferred models, Psychological Review, 120, 561-588 PDFPDF

Knauff, M., Bucher, L., Krumnack, A., & Nejasmic, J. (2013). Spatial belief revision.   Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25, 147-156. PDFPDF




Wolf, A.G., Rieger, S., & Knauff, M. (2012). The effects of source trustworthiness and inference type on human belief revision. Thinking & Reasoning, 18, 417-440. 

Röser, F., Hamburger, K., Krumnack, A., & Knauff, M. (2012). The structural salience of landmarks: results from an on-line study and a virtual environment experiment. Journal of Spatial Science, 57(1), 37-50.



Krumnack, A., Bucher, L., Nejasmic, J., Nebel, B., & Knauff, M. (2011). A model for relational reasoning as verbal reasoning. Cognitive Systems Research , 11, 377-392.PDFPDF

Röser, F., Hamburger, K., & Knauff, M. (2011). The Giessen virtual environment laboratory: human wayfinding and landmark salience. Cognitive Processing, 12(2), 209-214.

Knauff, M., & Ragni, M. (2011). Cross-Cultural Preferences in Spatial Reasoning. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 11, 1-21. PDFPDF



Knauff, M., Budeck, C., Wolf, A.G., & Hamburger, K. (2010). The illogicality of stock-brokers: Psychological experiments on the effects of prior knowledge and belief biases on logical reasoning in stock trading. PLoS ONE 5(10): e13483. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013483 Link




Knauff, M. (2009). Reasoning. In: M. D. Binder, N. Hirokawa, U, Windhorst, M. C. Hirsch (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (pp. 3377- 3382). Berlin: Springer. pdf-logoPDF

Knauff, M. (2009). A Neuro-Cognitive Theory of Deductive Relational Reasoning with Mental Models and Visual Images. Spatial Cognition and Computation, 109-137. pdfPDF

Fangmeier, T., &  Knauff, M. (2009). Neural correlates of acoustic reasoning. Brain Research, 1249, 181-190. pdfPDF




Meilinger, T., & Knauff, M. (2008). Ask for directions or use a map: A field experiment on spatial orientation and wayfinding in an urban environment. Journal of Spatial Science,53, 13-24.pdfPDF

Ragni, M., & Knauff, M. (2008). Deductive Spatial Reasoning: A Computational and Cognitive Perspectve. Künstliche Intelligenz, 13-17. pdfPDF

Meilinger, T., Knauff, M., & Bülthoff, H.H. (2008). Working memory in wayfinding - a dual task experiment in a virtual city. Cognitive Science, 32, 755-770. pdfPDF




Jahn, G., Knauff, M., & Johnson-Laird, P. N. (2007). Preferred Mental Models in Linear Reasoning. Memory & Cognition, 35, 2075-2087.pdfPDF

Fehr, T., Wiedenmann, P., & Herrmann, M. (2007). Differences in ERP topographies during color matching of smoking-related and neutral pictures in smokers and non-smokers. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 65, 284 - 293.pdfPDF

Hölscher, C., Meilinger, T., Vrachliotis, G., Brösamle, M., & Knauff, M. (2007). Up the down staircase: Wayfinding strategies in multi-level buildings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 26(4), 284-299.pdfPDF

Knauff, M. (2007). How our brains reason logically. Topoi, 26, 19-36.pdfPDF




Fangmeier, T., Knauff, M., Ruff, C. C., & Sloutsky, V. (2006). fMRI Evidence for a Three-Stage Model of Deductive Reasoning. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 320-334.pdfPDF

Fehr, T., Wiedenmann, P., & Herrmann, M. (2006). Nicotine Stroop and addiction memory - an ERP study. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 62, 224–232.pdfPDF

Held, C., Knauff, M., & Vosgerau, G. (Eds.). (2006). Mental Models and the Mind. A Conception in the Intersection of Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience and Philosophy of Mind. North-Holland: Elsevier.Knauff, M. (2006). Deduktion und logisches Denken. In J. Funke (Hrsg.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Themenbereich C, Bd. 8, Denken und Problemlösen (pp. 167-264). Göttingen: Hogrefe.

Knauff, M. (2006). Deduktion und logisches Denken. In J. Funke (Hrsg.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Themenbereich C, Bd. 8, Denken und Problemlösen (pp. 167-264). Göttingen: Hogrefe.

Knauff, M., & May, E. (2006). Mental imagery, reasoning, and blindness. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 161-177.pdfPDF

Rößler, F., Tejada, E., Fangmeier, T., Ertl, T., & Knauff, M. (2006). GPU-based Multi-Volume Rendering for the Visualization of Functional Brain Images. In T. Schulze, G. Horton, B. Preim & S. Schlechtenweg (Eds.), Simulation und Visualisierung 2006 (pp. 305 – 318). Magdeburg: SCS Publishing House. pdfPDF

Wranke, C., Strüber, D., Stadler, M., & Basar-Eroglu, C. (2006). Differences in the genetic influence on EEG oscillations during mulitstable perception and a visual oddball paradigm. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 62(3), 369-370.



Barkowsky, T., Bateman, J., Freksa, C., Burgard, W. , & Knauff, M. (2005). Spatial Cognition: Reasoning, Action, Interaction. IT – Information Technology, 47, 163-171.

Freksa, C., Knauff, M., Krieg-Brückner, B., Nebel, B., & Barkowsky, T. (Eds.) (2005). Spatial Cognition IV. New York: Springer.

Rauh, R., Hagen, C., Knauff, M., Kuß, T., Schlieder, C., & Strube, G. (2005). From preferred to alternative mental models in spatial reasoning. Spatial Cognition and Computation, 5, 239-269.pdfPDF




Knauff, M., & Schlieder, C. (2004). Spatial inference: No difference between mental images and models. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 27, 589-590.pdfPDF

Knauff, M., Strube, G., Jola, C., Rauh, R., & Schlieder, C. (2004). The psychological validity of qualitative spatial reasoning in one dimension. Spatial Cognition and Computation, 167-188.pdfPDF




Knauff, M., Fangmeier, T., Ruff, C. C., & Johnson-Laird, P. N. (2003). Reasoning, models, and images: Behavioral measures and cortical activity. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 559-573.pdfPDF

Ruff, C. C., Knauff, M., Fangmeier, T., & Spreer, J. (2003). Reasoning and working memory: Common and distinct neuronal processes. Neuropsychologia, 41, 1241-1253.pdfPDF




Knauff, M., & Johnson-Laird, P. N. (2002). Visual imagery can impede reasoning. Memory & Cognition, 30, 363-371.pdfPDF

Knauff, M., Mulack, T., Kassubek, J., Salih, H. R., & Greenlee, M. W. (2002). Spatial imagery in deductive reasoning: A functional MRI study. Cognitive Brain Research, 13, 203-212.pdfPDF

Knauff, M.,Schlieder, C., & Freksa, C. (2002). Spatial cognition: From rat-research to multifunctional spatial assistance systems. Künstliche Intelligenz, 3, 5-9.pdfPDF

Knauff, M., & Strube, G. (2002). Anschauliches denken und arbeitsgedächtnis: Kognitive und kortikale prozesse. Psychologische Rundschau, 53, 49-60.


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