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The town of Kuromatsunai is located in the southwestern part of the Hokkaido island, northern Japan. It lies in a region of a hemiboreal climate and faces Pacific Ocean in the south and the Sea of Japan in the north. The main channel of the Shubuto River System is about 40 km long, which discharges into the Sea of Japan. Agriculture developed along the main channel and Kuromatsunai and Neppu streams, and fish such as sweetfish and salmon have been important natural resources from food supply and cultural aspects. The other well-known characteristic is ancient woodland, which covers more than 40 % of the town. This area is considered as the northern limit of beech forest that mainly distributes on the main island of Japan, and there exists a long history of protecting the forest from development. Therefore, beech forest has been the core part of the town, and is one of the main focuses for planning such as comprehensive plan and biodiversity strategy. Conservation and sightseeing activities related to beech forest are also increasing.