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  • Rupp O, Roessner C, Lederer-Ponzer N, Wollenweber TE, Becker A, Lamaoui M (2024) Genome of Argania spinosa L.: Insights into Oil Production and the Tocopherol Biosynthesis Pathway. Genet Resour Crop Evol (2024).



  • RanOmics group (Becker A, Bachelier JB, Carrive L, Conde e Silva N, Damerval C, Del Rio C, Deveaux Y, Die Stilio V, Gong Y, Jabbour F, Kramer EM, Nadot S, Pabón-Mora N, Wang W)(2023) A cornucopia of diversity - Ranunculales as a model lineage. Journal of Experimental Botany: erad492.
  • Pramanik D, Becker A, Roessner C, Rupp O, Bogarín D, et al. (2023) Evolution and development of fruits of Erycina pusilla and other orchid species. PLOS ONE 18(10): e0286846.
  • Wegner, L., Porth, M.L., Ehlers, K. (2023) Multicellularity and the Need for Communication—A Systematic Overview on (Algal) Plasmodesmata and Other Types of Symplasmic Cell Connections. Plants 12, 3342.
  • Gust A, Yang Y, Steidele C, Rössner C, Löffelhardt B, Kolb B, Leisen T, Zhang W, Ludwig C, Felix, Seidl MF, Becker A,  Nurnberger T, Hahn M, Gust B, Gross H, Hückelhoven R. 2023. Convergent evolution of plant pattern recognition receptors sensing cysteine-rich patterns from three microbial kingdoms. Nature communications, Nature communications,14:3621, 
  • Roessner C, Bhide AS, Hoffmeier A, Schenk J, Groß T, Gramzow L, Theißen G, Becker A (2023) Conservation of the restricted expression  of Brassicaceae Bsister-like genes in seeds requires a transposable element in Arabidopsis thaliana. Molecular Biology and Evolution, Vol 40, Issue5

  • Becker A, Yamada Y, Sato F (2023) California poppy (Eschscholzia californica), the Papaveraceae golden girl model organism for evodevo and specialized metabolism. Front. Plant Sci 14:1084358, DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2023.1084358

  • Gemeinholzer B, Rupp O, Becker A, Strickert O, Müller CM (2023) Genotyping by sequencing and a newly developed mRNA-GBS approach to link population genetic and transcriptome analyses reveal pattern differences between sites and treatments in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 10: 1003057, DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2022.1003057




  • Schlemmer T, Lischka R, Wegner L, Ehlers K, Biedenkopf D, Koch A (2022). Extracellular vesicles isolated from dsRNA-sprayed barley plants exhibit no growth inhibition or gene silencing in Fusarium graminearum. Fungal Biology and Biotechnology 9: 14,
  • Marchant DB, Chen G, Cai S, Chen F, Schafran P, Jenkins J, Shu S, Plott C, Webber J, Lovell J T, He G, Sandor L, Williams M, Rajasekar S, Healey A, Barry K, Zhang Y, Sessa E, Dhakal R, Wolf PG, Harkess A, Li F-W, Rössner C, Becker A, Gramzow L, Xue D, Wu Y, Tong T, Wang Y, Dai F, Hua S, Wang H, Xu S, Xu F, Duan H, Theißen T, McKain M, Li Z, McKibben MTW, Barker MS, Schmitz RJ, Stevenson D, Zumajo-Cardona C, Ambrose BA, Leebens-Mack JH, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Soltis PS, Soltis DE, Chen ZH  (2022)  Dynamic genome evolution in a model fern. Nat. Plants.
  • Althoff F, Wegner L, Ehlers K, Buschmann H, Zachgo S (2022) Developmental plasticity of the Amphibious Liverwort Riccia fluitans. Front. Plant Sci.
  • Rössner C, Lotz D, Becker A (2022) VIGS Goes Viral: How VIGS Transforms Our Understanding of Plant Science. Annual Reviews of Plant Biology,73:703-28,
  • Lotz D, Imanin J, Ehlers K, Becker A (2022) Towards a genetic model organism: an efficient method for stable genetic transformation of Eschscholzia californica (Ranunculales). Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture (PTOC) 149:823-832, DOI:





  • Gross T, Becker A. (2021) Transcription factor action orchestrates the complex expression pattern of CRABS CLAW in Arabidopsis. Genes 2021, 12(11), 1663;
  • Kong D, Becker A (2021) Then there were plenty - ring meristems giving rise to many stamen whorls. Plants 10: 1140,
  • Claßen-Bockhoff R, Becker A, Ronse De Craene LP. (2021) Editorial: From Meristems to Floral Diversity: Developmental Options and Constraints. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 9:183,
  • Herbert DB, Gross T, Rupp O, Becker A (2021) Transcriptome analysis reveals major transcriptional changes during regrowth after mowing of red clover (Trifolium pratense). BMC Plant Biology 21:95.
  • Gross T, Müller CM, Becker A, Gemeinholzer B, Wissemann V (2021) Common garden versus common practice – Phenotypic changes in Trifolium pratense L. in response to repeated mowing. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 94:1-6.






  • Kivivirta K, Herbert D, Roessner C, de Folter S, Marsch-Martinez N, Becker A (2020) Transcriptome analysis of gynoecium morphogenesis uncovers the chronology of gene regulatory network activity. Plant Physiology 185: 1076-1090, doi:10.1093/plphys/kiaa090
  • Venneman J, Pawlick JS, Audenaert K, Meyer E, Demeyere K, Leus L, Baert G, Kogel K-H, Haesaert G, Vereecke D, Ehlers K (2020) Evaluation of genome size and  quantitative features of the dolipore septum as taxonomic predictors for the Serendipita 'williamsii' species complex. 
    Fungal Biology 124(9):781-800.
  • Becker, A (2020) A molecular update on the origin of the carpel. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 53: 15-22.
  • Keipp K, Hütsch BW, Ehlers K, Schubert S (2020) Drought stress in sunflower causes inhibition of seed filling due to reduced cell-extension growth. J Agro Crop Sci. 206: 517-528.




  • Kivivirta K, Herbert D, Lange M, Beuerlein K, Altmüller J, Becker A (2019) A protocol for Laser Microdissection (LMD) followed by transcriptome analysis of plant reproductive tissue in phylogenetically distant angiosperms. Plant Methods 15: 1-11.

  • Pabón-Mora N, Di Stilio VS, Becker A (2019) Genetic Regulatory Mechanisms Underlying Developmental Shifts in Plant Evolution. Frontiers in Plant Science 10, 710. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00710

  • Dommes AB, Gross T, Herbert DB, Kivivirta KI, Becker A. (2019) Virus-induced gene silencing: empowering genetics in non-model organisms. Journal of Experimental Botany 70:757-770. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ery411 .




  • Hoffmeier A, Gramzow L, Bhide AS, Kottenhagen N, Greifenstein A, Schubert O, Mummenhoff K, Becker A, Theißen G (2018) A dead gene walking: convergent degeneration of a Clade of MADS-box genes in crucifers.  Mol Biol Evol 35:2618-2638.

  • Gross T, Broholm S, Becker A (2018) CRABS CLAW acts as a bifunctional transcription factor in flower development. Frontiers in Plant Science 9:835. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00835

  • Zhao Y, Pfannebecker K, Dommes AB, Hidalgo O, Becker A, Elomaa P (2018) Evolutionary diversification of CYC/TB1 -like TCP homologs and their recruitement for the control of branching and floral morphology in Papaveraceae (basal eudicots). New Phytologist 216: 361-366. doi: 10.1111/nph.15289

  • Herbert D, Ekschmitt K, Wissemann V, Becker A (2018) Cutting reduces variation in biomass production of forage crops and allows low-performers to catch up: A case study of Trifolium pratense L. (red clover). Plant Biology 20: 465-473. doi: 10.1111/plb.12695




  • Bolouri Moghaddam M-R , Gross T, Becker A, Vilcinskas A, Rahnamaeian M (2017). The selective antifungal activity of Drosophila melanogaster metchnikowin reflects the species-dependent inhibition of succinate–coenzyme Q reductase. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 8192, doi:10.1038/s41598-017-08407-x

  • Pfannebecker M, Lange M, Rupp O, Becker A. (2017) Seed plant specific gene lineages involved in carpel development. Mol Biol Evol 34: 925-942 - dazu ein Artikel auf
  • Pfannebecker K, Lange M, Rupp O, Becker A (2017) An evolutionary framework for carpel developmental control genes. Mol Biol Evol 34: 330-348 - MBE Cover dazu ein Artikel auf
  • Damerval C, Becker A. (2017) Genetics of Flower Development in Ranunculales – a new, basal eudicot model order for studying flower evolution. New Phytologist 216:361–366. doi: 10.1111/nph.14401




  • Ehlers K, Bhide A S, Tekleyohans D G, Wittkop B, Snowdon R J, Becker A (2016) The MADS box genes ABS, SHP1, and SHP2 are essential for the coordination of cell divisions in ovule and seed coat development and for endosperm formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS ONE 11:e0165075. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165075

  • Becker, A (2016) Tinkering with transcription factor networks for developmental robustness of Ranunculales flowers. Annals of Botany 117:845-858. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcw03
  • Becker, A and Ehlers, K (2016) Arabidopsis flower development—of protein complexes, targets, and transport. Protoplasma 253:219–230; DOI 10.1007/s00709-015-0812-7




  • Schmidt M, Horn S, Ehlers K, Wilhelm C, Schnetter R (2015) Guanchochroma wildpretii gen. et spec. nov. (Ochrophyta) provides new insights into the diversification and evolution of the algal class Synchromophyceae. PLoS ONE 10: e0131821. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131821






  • Schenk  S T, Hernández-Reyes C, Samans B, Stein E, Neumann C, Schikora M, Reichelt M, Mithöfer A, Becker A, Kogel K-H , Schikora A (2014) N-Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Primes Plants for Cell Wall Reinforcement and Induces Resistance to Bacterial Pathogens via the Salicylic Acid/Oxylipin Pathway. Plant Cell 26):2708-2723. doi: 10.1105/tpc.114.126763
  • Bhide A, Schliesky S, Reich M ,  Weber A PM, Becker A (2014) Analysis of the floral transcriptome of Tarenaya hassleriana (Cleomaceae), a member of the sister group to the Brassicaceae: towards understanding the base of morphological diversity in Brassicales. BMC Genomics  15:140. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-15-140

  • Langen G, von Einem S, Koch A, Imani J, Pai S. B., Manohar M , Ehlers K, Choi H W, Claar M, Schmidt R, Mang H-G, Bordiya Yogendra, Kang H-G, Klessig D F. , Kogel Karl-Heinz (2014) The compromised recognition of turnip crinkle virus1 subfamily of microrchidia ATPases regulates disease resistance in barley to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. Plant Physiology 164: 866-878.
  • Stille JS, Jaeger M, Dickore WB, Ehlers K, Holzhauer SIJ, Mayland-Quellhorst E, Safer S, Schwaiger S, Stuessy TF, Stuppner H, Wissemann V (2014) Chromosome numbers of the Edelweiss Leontopodium (Pers.) R. Br. (Asteraceae, Compositae, Gnaphalieae). Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71:1-11.





  • Cheng S, van den Bergh E,  Zeng P, Zhong,X, Xu J, Liu X, Hofberger J, de Bruijn S, Bhide A S, Kuelahoglu C, Bian C, Chen J, Fan G, Kaufmann K, Hall J C, Becker A, Bräutigam A,  Weber A PM, Shi C, Zheng Z, Li W,  Lv M, Tao Y, Wang J, Zou H, Quan, Z, Hibberd J M, Zhan G, Zhu X-G,  Xu X, Schranz M E (2013) The Tarenaya hassleriana Genome Provides Insight into Reproductive Trait and Genome Evolution of Crucifers,  Plant Cell  25 (8): 2813-2830. DOI:
  • Hafke JB, Ehlers K, Föller J, Höll SR, Becker S, von Bel AJ (2013) Involvement of the sieve element cytoskeleton in electrical responses to cold shocks. Plant Physiology 162:707-719. DOI:

  • Stammler A, Meyer S S, Plant AR, Townsley BT, Becker A, Gleissberg S (2013). Duplicated STM-like KNOX I genes act in floral meristem activity in Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae). Development Genes and Evolution, Volume 223, Issue 5, pp 289-301. doi:
  • Lange M, Orashakova S, Lange S, Melzer R, Theißen G, Smyth DR, Becker A (2013) The seirena B class floral homeotic mutant of California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica) reveals a function of the enigmatic PI motif in the formation of specific multimeric MADS domain protein complexes. Plant Cell 25(2):438-53. DOI:

  • Lange M, Yellina AL, Orashakova S, Becker A (2013). Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in Plants: An Overview of Target Species and the Virus-Derived Vector Systems. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, NJ) 975:1-14. DOI:

  • Tekleyohans DG, Lange S, Becker A (2013) Virus-Induced Gene Silencing of the Alkaloid-Producing Basal Eudicot Model Plant Eschscholzia californica (California Poppy). Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 975:83-98. DOI:

  • Ehlers K, Große Westerloh M (2013) Developmental control of plasmodesmata frequency, structure, and function. In: Symplasmic Transport in Vascular Plants (K Sokolowska & P Sowinski eds.) Springer New York, pp 41-82 ISBN 978-1-4614-7764-8




  • Yang X, Wu F, Du X, Chong K, Gramzow L, Schilling S, Becker A, Theißen G, Meng Z (2012) Live and let die - the B(sister) MADS-box gene OsmADS29 controls the degeneration of cells in maternal tissues during seed development of rice (Oryza sativa). PLoS One 7(12):e51435. doi:
  • Kang H-G, Choi H W, von Einem S, Manosalva P, Ehlers K, Liu P-P, Buxa SV, Moreau M, Mang H-G, Kachroo P, Kogel K-H, Klessig DF (2012) CRT1 is a nuclear-translocated MORC endonuclease that participates in multiple levels of plant immunity. Nature Communications 3: 1297.

  • Schmidt M, Horn S, Flieger K, Ehlers K, Wilhelm C, Schnetter R (2012) Synchroma pusillum sp. nov. and other new algal isolates with chloroplast complexes confirm the Synchromophyceae (Ochrophyta) as a widely distributed group of amoeboid algae. Protist 163:544-559.









  • Yellina A, Orashakova S, Lange S, Erdmann E, Leebens-Mack J, Becker A. (2010) Floral homeotic C function genes repress specific B function genes in the carpel whorl of the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica). BMC Evodevo 1:13

  •  Erdmann R, Gramzow L, Melzer R, Theißen G, Becker A. (2010) GORDITA (GOA) is a young paralogue of the Arabidopsis thaliana Bsister MADS-box gene ABS (TT16) that has undergone neofunctionalization. Plant Journal, 63: 914-924

  •  Viane T, Vekemans D, Becker A, Melzer S, Geuten K. (2010) Diverse functions of the AGL6 MADS domain transcription factor lineage after a core eudicot duplication suggests functional diversification. BMC Plant Biol 10:148

  •  Lange M, Becker A (2010) VIGS - genomics goes functional. Trends in Plant Sciences 15(1): 1-4

  • Fuchs M, Ehlers K, Will T, van Bel AJE (2010) Immunolocalization indicates plasmodesmal trafficking of storage proteins during cambial reactivation in Populus nigra. Annals of Botany, 106, 385-394

  • Fuchs M, van Bel AJE, Ehlers K (2010) Season-associated modifications in symplasmic organization of the cambium in Populus nigra. Annals of Botany 105, 375-387

  • Ehlers K, van Bel AJE (2010) Dynamics of plasmodesmal connectivity in successive interfaces of the cambial zone. Planta 231, 371-385


 2005 - 2009


  • Rensing L, Koch M, Becker A. (2009) A comparative approach to the principal mechanisms of different memory systems. Naturwissenschaften 96: 1373-8

  • Orashakova S, Lange M, Lange S, Wege S, Becker A. (2009) The CRABS CLAW ortholog from the basal eudicot California poppy, (Eschscholzia californica), EcCRC, is involved in floral meristem termination and gynoecium development. Plant Journal 58: 682-693

  • Wege S, Scholz A, Gleissberg S, Becker A (2007) Highly efficient virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in California poppy (Eschscholzia californica Cham.): An evaluation of VIGS as a strategy to obtain functional data from non-model plants. Annals Bot 100: 641-649

  • Schnetter R, Ehlers K (2007) Rätselhafte Chloroplastenanordnung. Synchromophyceae – eine neue Klasse von Algen. Labor & More, 5/2007, S. 42-43

  • Horn S, Ehlers K, Fritzsch G, Gil-Rodriguez MC, Wilhelm C, Schnetter R (2007) Synchroma grande spec. nov. (Synchromophyceae class. nov., Heterokontophyta):an amoeboid marine alga with unique plastid complexes. Protist 158:277-293.

  • Zahn LM, Leebens-Mack J, Arrington JM, Hu Y, Landherr L, dePamphilis C, Becker A, Theissen G, Ma H (2006) Conservation and divergence in the AGAMOUS Subfamily of MADS-Box Genes: Evidence of Independent Sub- and Neofunctionalization Events. Evol Dev 8: 30-45

  • Carlson J, Leebens-Mack JH, Wall PK, Zahn LM, Mueller LM, Landherr LL, Hu Y, Ilut DC, Arrington JM, Choirean S, Becker A, Field D, Tanksley SD, Ma H, dePamphilis CW (2006) EST database for early flower development in California poppy (Eschscholzia californica Cham., Papaveraceae) tags over 6000 genes from a basal eudicot. Plant Mol Biol 62: 351-369

  • Geuten K, Becker A, Kaufmann K, Caris P, Janssens S, Viaene T, Theissen G, Smets E (2006) Petaloidy and petal identity MADS-box genes in the balsaminoid genera Impatiens and Marcgravia. Plant J 47: 501-518

  • An Q-L, Ehlers K, Kogel K-H, van Bel AJE, Hückelhoven R (2006) Multivesicular compartments proliferate in susceptible and resistant MLA12-barley leaves in response to infection by the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus. New Phytologist 172:563-576.

  • Becker A, Gleissberg S, Smyth DR (2005) Floral and Vegetative Morphogenesis in California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica Cham.), Intl J Plant Sci 166 (4): 537-555

  • van Bel AJE, Ehlers K (2005) Electrical signalling via plasmodesmata. In: Plasmodesmata (K.J. Oparka, ed.). Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 263-278


 2000 - 2004


  • Theißen, G, Becker, A. (2004). The ABCs of flower development in Arabidopsis and rice. Progress in Botany, 65

  • Becker A, Theißen G. (2004) Orthologs of class B floral homeotic genes from gymnosperms: features, phylogeny and importance for flower origin. Crit Rev Plant Sci, 23(2):129-148

  • Noll GA, Knoblauch M, Prüfer D, Ehlers K, van Bel AJE, Peters WS (2004) Unexpected properties of a novel class of mechano-proteins from various plants. In: Micro- and nanostructures of biological systems II. (G. Bischoff & H.J. Hein, eds.) Shaker Aachen, pp 20-31

  • Becker A, Theißen G. (2003) The major clades of MADS-box genes and their role in the development and evolution of flowering plants. Mol Phyl Evol, 29(3): 464-489

  • Becker A, Saedler, H, Theißen G. (2003) Distinct MADS-box gene expression patterns in the reproductive cones of the gymnosperm Gnetum gnemon. Dev Gen Evol, 213: 567-572

  • Dietz C, Ehlers K, Wilhelm C, Gil-Rodríguez MC, Schnetter R (2003) Lotharella polymorpha sp. nov. (Chlorarachniophyta) from the coast of Portugal, Phycologia 42:582-593

  • Becker A, Bey M, Bürglin TR, Saedler H, Theißen G. (2002b) Ancestry and diversity of BEL1-like homeobox genes revealed by gymnosperm (Gnetum gnemon) homologs.  Dev Genes Evol 212: 452-457

  • Becker A, Kaufmann K, Freialdenhoven A, Vincent C, Li MA, Saedler H, Theißen G. (2002a) A novel MADS-box gene subfamily with a sistergroup relationship to class B floral homeotic genes. Mol. Gen. Gen. 266: 942-950 » Abstract 

  • Theißen G, Becker A, Winter K-U, Münster T, Kirchner C, Saedler H.(2002) How the land plants learned their floral ABCs: the role of MADS-box genes in the evolutionary origin of flowers. In: Cronk Q, Bateman R, Hawkins J (eds.) Developmental Genetics and Plant Evolution. Taylor & Francis, London

  • van Bel AJE, Ehlers K, Knoblauch M (2002) Sieve elements caught in the act. Trends in Plant Science 7, 126-132.

  • Hoffmann-Thoma G, van Bel AJE, Ehlers K (2001) Ultrastructure of minor vein phloem and assimilate export in summer and winter leaves of the symplasmically loading evergreens Ajuga reptans L., Aucuba japonica Thunb. and Hedera helix L. Planta 212, 231-242

  • Ehlers K, Kollmann R (2001). Primary and secondary plasmodesmata: structure, origin, and functioning. Protoplasma 216:1-30.

  • Knoblauch M, Ehlers K, Peters WS, van Bel AJE (2001). Reversible calcium-regulated stopcocks in legume sieve tubes. Plant Cell 13:1221-1230.

  • Saedler H, Becker A, Winter K-U, Kirchner C, Theißen G. (2001) MADS-box genes are involved in floral development and evolution. Acta Biochim. Pol. 48(2):351-358

  • van Bel AJE, Ehlers K (2000) Symplasmic organization of the transport phloem controls assimilate supply of the cambium. In: Cambium: the biology of wood formation. (R Savidge, JR Barnett & R Napier, eds.). Bios, Oxford, 85-99.

  • Ehlers K, Kollmann R (2000) Synchronization of mitotic activity in protoplast-derived Solanum nigrum L. microcallus is correlated with plasmodesmal connectivity. Planta 210:269-278.

  • Ehlers K, Knoblauch M, van Bel AJE (2000) Ultrastructural features of well-preserved and injured sieve elements. Minute clamps keep the phloem transport conduits free for mass flow. Protoplasma 214:80-92.

  • Theißen G, Becker A, Di Rosa A, Kanno A, Kim JT, Münster T, Winter K-U, Saedler H. (2000) A short history of MADS-box genes in plants. Plant Mol. Biol. 42:115-119  » Abstract


1995 - 1999


  • Ehlers K, Binding H, Kollmann R (1999) The formation of symplasmic domains by plugging of plasmodesmata: a general event in plant morphogenesis. Protoplasma 209, 181-192.

  • Ehlers K, van Bel AJE (1999) The physiological and developmental consequences of plasmodesmal connectivity. In: Plasmodesmata. Structure, Function, Role in Cell Communication. (A.J.E. van Bel and W.J.P. van Kesteren eds.). Springer Verlag, Heidelberg Berlin New York, pp. 243-260.

  • Becker A, Winter K-U, Meyer B, Saedler H, Theißen G. (1999) MADS-box gene diversity in seed plants 300 million years ago. Mol. Biol. Evol. 17:1425-1434  » Abstract 

  • Winter KU, Becker A, Münster T, Kim JT, Saedler H, Theissen G.(1999), MADS-box genes reveal that gnetophytes are more closely related to conifers than to flowering plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA96(13):7342-7

  • Ehlers K, Schulz M, Kollmann R (1996) Subcellular localization of ubiquitin in plant protoplasts and the function of ubiquitin in selective degradation of outer-wall plasmodesmata in regenerating protoplasts. Planta 199, 139-151.

  • Ehlers K, Kollmann R (1996) Formation of branched plasmodesmata in regenerating Solanum nigrum protoplasts. Planta 199, 126-138.

  • Weakley J, Becker A. (1995) The Svalbard Reindeer. In: Arctic Centre Reports 12: Svalbard, Field Excursion in Arctic Marine Biology. J. Weissenberger and A.-L. Sippola (Hrs.), Lapin Yliopistopaino, Rovaniemi