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Krüger, Karsten (Prof. Dr. rer. nat.)

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Krüger, Karsten (Prof. Dr. rer. nat.)

Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Karsten Krüger (E-Mail)
Head of Department

Consultation time: here

Phone: +49 (0) 641 / 99-25210

Working area

Working Area: 1.) Applied human physiology with emphasis on the molecular and integrative mechanisms underlying acute exercise and adaptive responses to exercise training and their health-related implications 2.) Exercise immunology focussed on the adaptation of the innate and adaptive immune system and the role of inflammation in adaptation processes 3.) Mechanisms of anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training 4.) Identification of molecular biomarkers in health and disease 

Board member of the International Society of Exercise Immunology (ISEI)

Member of the Wissenschaftsrat of the Deutschen Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention (DGSP)

Editor-in-Chief: Exercise Immunology Review

Scientific Advisory Board: German Journal of Sports Medicine/Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin  

Curriculum vitae

  • 2019 Professorship for Exercise Physiology and Sports Therapy, Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Germany
  • 2019 Study Dean (Studiendekan) at the Faculty of Philosophy at the Leibniz University Hannover, Germany
  • 2018 Executive Director, Institute for Sports Science, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany
  • 2017 Professorship for Exercise and Health, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany 
  • 2015-2017 Senior Scientist, Institute of Sports Science, Justus-Liebig-University of Gießen, Germany
  • 2015 Postdoctoral qualification (Habilitation),Immunologic Adaptation to Exercise and Training‘
  • 2009 Doctoral degree (Doctor rerum naturaliu) “Mechanisms of quantitative and functional changes of lymphocytes after acute exercise” 
Scientific Awards

  • Immunotools Special Award Winner 2015
  • Award for best slide presentation DGSP conference 2013, Berlin
  • 2nd Place prize Early Young Career Researcher Award, International Society of Exercise and Immunolog (ISEI) Symposium 2011, Oxford, GB
  • Award for best poster presentation, DGSP conference  2007, Cologne
  • Award for best thesis, FB Psychology/Sport Science 2004, Münster

Publications (Scientific Journals, Peer-Review)


  • Beiter T, Zügel M, Hudemann J, Schild M, Fragasso A, Burgstahler C, Krüger K, Mooren FC, Steinacker JM, Nieß AM. The Acute, Short-, and Long-Term Effects of Endurance Exercise on Skeletal Muscle Transcriptome Profiles. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2024; 25(5):2881.


  • Nolte S, Krüger K, Lenz C, Zentgraf K. Optimizing the Gut Microbiota for Individualized Performance Development in Elite Athletes. Biology. Accepted.
  • Olean-Oliveira T, Padilha CS, Figueiredo C, Dorneles GP, Marmett B, Peres A, Romão P, Abílio de Souza Teixeira A, Jabur Ribeiro JP, Dos Santos VR, Olean-Oliveira A, Teixeira MFS, Seraphim PM, Krüger K, Rosa-Neto JC, Lira FS.Central obesity is detrimental to anti-inflammatory, phenotype, and exhaustion markers in mononuclear cells - A cross-sectional study. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2023 Dec;58:397-408.
  • Hecksteden A, Hoppstädter J, Bizjak DA, Jerg A, Kirsten J, Krüger K, Niess A, Steinacker J, Kiemer AK. Effects of acute exercise and training status on glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) expression in human skeletal muscle.
     J Sci Med Sport. 2023 Dec;26(12):707-710. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2023.10.007.
  • Böttrich T, Bauer P, Grösser V, Huber M, Raifer H, Frech T, Nolte S, Dombrowski T, Cemic F, Sommer N, Ringseis R, Eder K, Krüger K, Weyh C. Subpopulations of regulatory T cells are associated with subclinical atherosclerotic plaques, levels of LDL, and cardiorespiratory fitness in the elderly. J Sport Health Sci. 2023 Nov 10:S2095-2546(23)00113-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jshs.2023.11.004. 
  • Silva BSA, Pereira T, Minuzzi LG, Padilha CS, Figueiredo C, Olean-Oliveira T, Dos Santos IVM, von Ah Morano AE, Marchioto Júnior O, Ribeiro JPJ, Dos Santos VR, Seelaender M, Teixeira AA, Dos Santos RVT, Lemos VA, Freire APCF, Dorneles GP, Marmett B, Olean-Oliveira A, Teixeira MFS, Seraphim PM, Caseiro A, Pinho RA, Islam H, Little JP, Krüger K, Rosa-Neto JC, Coelho-E-Silva MJ, Lira FS. Mild to moderate post-COVID-19 alters markers of lymphocyte activation, exhaustion, and immunometabolic responses that can be partially associated by physical activity level- an observational sub-analysis fit- COVID study. Front Immunol. 2023 Sep 11;14:1212745. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1212745.
  • Peters E, Del Rey A, Krüger K, Rummel C. 2nd European Psychoneuroimmunology Network Autumn School: The Skin-Brain Axis and the Breaking of Barriers. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2023;30 Suppl 1(1):3-7. doi: 10.1159/000533611.
  • Palmowski J, Kohnhorst S, Bauer P, Puta C, Haunhorst S, Gebhardt K, Reichel T, Keller C, Huber M, Raifer H, Krüger K. T-cell-derived TNF-α and a cluster of immunological parameters from plasma allow a separation between SARS-CoV-2 convalescent versus vaccinated elite athletes. Frontiers in Physiology 2023 Jun 22;14:1203983. 
  • Grundmann SM, Herrero-Encinas J, Most E, Piecha AM, Krüger K, Eder K. Effect of supplementation of vitamin D3 or vitamin D2 on serum concentrations of free and total 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the expression of genes involved in immune function in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of weaned pigs. Archives in Animal Nutrition 2023 Jun;77(3):228-244. 
  • Haller N, Reichel T, Zimmer P, Behringer M, Wahl P, Stöggl T, Krüger K, Simon P. Blood-Based Biomarkers for Managing Workload in Athletes: Perspectives for Research on Emerging Biomarkers. Sports Medicine 2023 Jun 21. doi: 10.1007/s40279-023-01866-5. 
  • Haller N, Behringer M, Reichel T, Wahl P, Simon P, Krüger K, Zimmer P, Stöggl T. Blood-Based Biomarkers for Managing Workload in Athletes: Considerations and Recommendations for Evidence-Based Use of Established Biomarkers. Sports Medicine 2023 May 19:1–19. 
  • Boßlau TK, Wasserfurth P, Reichel T, Weyh C, Palmowski J, Nebl J, Joisten N, Belen S, Schenk A, Hahn A, Zimmer P, Krüger K. 12-week combined strength and endurance exercise attenuates CD8+ T-cell differentiation and affects the kynurenine pathway in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial. Immunity & Ageing. 2023 May 9;20(1):19.
  • Kishore A, Fan L, Stahl F, Reichel T, Krüger K, Zeilinger C. Fluorescence Masking Based Multifunctional Quantum Dots’ Assay for HSP90α Interactions Detection. Applied Sciences. 2023; 13(5):2957. 
  • Padilha CS, Kushkestani M, Baptista LP, Krüger K, Lira FS. Autophagy of naïve CD4+ T cells in aging - the role of body adiposity and physical fitness. Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine 2023 Jan 19;25:e9. doi: 10.1017/erm.2023.2.

  • Reichel T, Held S, Schwarz A, Hacker S, Wesemann F, Donath L, Krüger K. Acute response of biomarkers in plasma from capillary blood after a strenuous endurance exercise bout. European Journal of Applied Physiology 2023 Jan;123(1):179-189. doi: 10.1007/s00421-022-05068-1. Epub 2022 Oct 13.


  • Haunhorst S, Bloch W, Wagner H, Ellert C, Krüger K, Vilser DC, Finke K, Reuken P, Pletz MW, Stallmach A, Puta C. Long COVID: a narrative review of the clinical aftermaths of COVID-19 with a focus on the putative pathophysiology and aspects of physical activity. Oxford Open Immunology 2022 Sep 16;3(1):iqac006. doi: 10.1093/oxfimm/iqac006.

  • Joisten N, Wences Chirino TY, Boßlau TK, Wasserfurth P, Hahn A, Krüger K, Zimmer P. Older adults with cytomegalovirus reveal increased CD8+ /CD4+ EMRA T cells and elevated systemic levels of kynurenic acid. Immunology. 2022 Nov 22. doi: 10.1111/imm.13609.

  • Haunhorst S, Bloch W, Javelle F, Krüger K, Baumgart S, Drube S, Lemhöfer C, Reuken P, Stallmach A, Müller M, Zielinski CE, Pletz MW, Gabriel HHW, Puta C. A scoping review of regulatory T cell dynamics in convalescent COVID-19 patients - indications for their potential involvement in the development of Long COVID? Frontiers in Immunology 2022 Dec 13;13:1070994. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.1070994.

  • Weiss A, Alack K, Klatt S, Zukunft S, Schermuly R, Frech T, Mooren FC, Krüger K. Sustained Endurance Training Leads to Metabolomic Adaptation. Metabolites. 2022 Jul 16;12(7):658. doi: 10.3390/metabo12070658.

  • Rummel C, Del Rey A, Bähr L, Krüger K, Peters E. 1st European Psychoneuroimmunology Network (EPN) Autumn School: Lung-Brain Axis in Health and Disease. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2022;29 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):3-8. doi: 10.1159/000526565. Epub 2022 Sep 1.

  • Rossi FE, Maldonado AJ, Cholewa JM, Ribeiro SLG, de Araújo Barros CA, Figueiredo C, Reichel T, Krüger K, Lira FS, Minuzzi LG. Exercise training-induced changes in immunometabolic markers in youth badminton athletes. Scientific Reports 2022 Sep 15;12(1):15539.
  • Reichel T, Hacker S, Palmowski J, Boßlau TK, Frech T, Tirekoglou P, Weyh C, Bothur E, Samel S, Walscheid R,  Krüger K. Neurophysiological Markers for Monitoring Exercise and Recovery Cycles in Endurance Sports. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 21, 446 - 457.
  • Padilha CS, Von Ah Morano AE, Krüger K, Rosa-Neto JC, Lira FS. The growing field of immunometabolism and exercise: Key findings in the last 5 years. Journal of Cellular Physiology. 2022 Sep 2. doi: 10.1002/jcp.30866.
  • Krüger K. DER MUSKEL Molekulare und integrative Prozesse nach Verletzungen. Sportärztezeitung 3,2022.
  • Lubrano E, Mazas PF, Freiwald J, Krüger K, Grattagliano I, Mur E, Silva RQ, Maruri GR, de Medeiros LS. An International Multidisciplinary Delphi-Based Consensus on Heat Therapy in Musculoskeletal Pain and Therapy 2022 Aug 6. doi: 10.1007/s40122-022-00419-4.
  • Rummel C, Del Rey A, Bähr L, Krüger K, Peters E. 1st European Psychoneuroimmunology Network (EPN) Autumn School: Lung-Brain Axis in Health and Disease. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2022;29 Suppl 2:3-8. doi: 10.1159/000526565.
  • Krüger K, Tirekoglou P, Weyh C. Immunological mechanisms of exercise therapy in dyslipidemia. Frontiers in Physiologie, 2022 Aug 8;13:903713. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2022.903713.
  • Gebhardt K, Krüger K. Research Highlight (invited): Supporting tumor therapy by exercise: boosting T cell immunity by myokines. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy. Acceptance. 
  • Rosa-Neto JC, Lira FS, Little JP, Landells G, Islam H,Chazaud B, Pyne DP, Teixeira AM, Batatinha H, Antunes BM, Minuzzi LG, Palmowski J,Simpson RJ, Krüger K. Immunometabolism-fit: How exercise and training can modify T cell and macrophage metabolism in health and disease. Exercise Immunology Review 2022;28:29-46.

  • Weyh C, Krüger K, Peeling P, Castell L. The Role of Minerals in the Optimal Functioning of the Immune System. Nutrients 2022. 14(3)
  • Padilha CS, Figueiredo C, Deminice R, Krüger K, Seelaender M, Cesar Rosa-Neo J, Lira FS. Costly immunometabolic remodelling in disused muscle buildup through physical exercise. Acta Physiologica. 2022 Jan 6;e13782.


  • Figueiredo C, Padilha C,  Dorneles G, Peres A, Krüger K, Rosa Neto JC, Fábio L. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2021 Dec 13.
  • Bizjak DA, Zügel M, Treff G, Winkert K, Jerg A, Hudemann J, Mooren FC, Krüger K, Nieß A, Steinacker JM. Effects of Training Status and Exercise Mode on Global Gene Expression in Skeletal Muscle. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2021 Nov 22;22(22):12578.
  • Wasserfurth P, Nebl J, Rühling MR, Shammas H, Bednarczyk J, Koehler K, Boßlau TK, Krüger K, Hahn A, Das AM. Impact of 12-weeks of resistance and aerobic training combined with dietary modifications on sirtuins in older individuals. Nutrients, acceptance.
  • Liu R, Krüger K, Pilat C, Fan W, Xiao Y, Seimetz M, Ringseis R, Baumgart-Vogt E, Eder K, Weissmann N, Mooren FC. Excessive accumulation of intracellular Ca 2+ after acute exercise potentiated impairment of T-cell function. Frontiers in Physiology, acceptance. 
  • Simpson RJ, Boßlau TK, Weyh C, Niemiro G, Batatinha H, Smith KA, Krüger K. Exercise and Adrenergic Regulation of Immunity. Brain Behavior and Immunity. 2021 Oct;97:303-318.
  • Schulze H, Hornbacher J, Wasserfurth J, Papenbrock J, Reichel T, Krüger K,  Hahn A, Schuchardt JP. Immunomodulating Effect of the Consumption of Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) on Exercise-Induced Inflammation in Humans. Foods, acceptance.
  • Brauer L, Krüger K, Weyh C, Alack K. The Effects of Physical Activity on the Aging of Circulating Immune Cells in Humans: A Systematic Review. Immuno, acceptance.
  • Palmowski J, Gebhardt K, Reichel T, Frech T, Ringseis R, Eder K, Renner-Sattler K, Krüger K. The Impact of Exercise Serum on Selected Parameters of CD4+ T Cell Metabolism. Immuno, acceptance.

  • Strasser B, Wolters B, Weyh C,  Krüger K, Ticinesi A. The Effects of Lifestyle and Diet on Gut Microbiota Composition,Inflammation and Muscle Performance in our Aging Society. Nutrients, acceptance.

  • Appel M, Zentgraf K, Krüger K, Alack K. Effects of genetic variation on endurance performance, muscle strength and injury susceptibility in sports: A systematic review. Frontiers in Physiology, acceptance.
  • Hacker S, Reichel T, Hecksteden A, Weyh C, Gebhardt K, Pfeiffer M, Ferrauti A, Kellmann M, 
    Meyer T, Krüger K. Recovery-stress response of blood-based biomarkers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2021 May 27;18(11):5776.
  • Boßlau TK, Wasserfurth P, Krüger B, Reichel T, Palmowski J, Nebl J, Weyh C, Schenk A, Joisten N, Stahl R, Thoms S, Gebhardt K, Hahn A, Krüger K. Abdominal obesity-related disturbance of insulin sensitivity is associated with CD8+ EMRA cells in the elderly. Cells, 2021 Apr 23;10(5):998.
  • Despeghel M, Reichel T,  Zander J,  Krüger K, Weyh C. Effects of a 6 Week Low-Dose Combined Resistance and Endurance Training on T Cells and Systemic Inflammation in the Elderly. Cells, 2021 Apr 8;10(4):843.
  • Padilha CSFigueiredo C, Minuzzi LGChimin C, Deminice R, Krüger K, Rosa-Neto JC, Lira FS. Immunometabolic responses according to physical fitness status and lifelong exercise during aging: new roads for exercise immunology. Aging Research Reviews. 2021 Jul;68:101341.
  • Wernicke K, Grischke J, Stiesch M, Zeissler S, Krüger K, Bauer P, Hillebrecht A, Eberhard J. Effects of physical activity on periodontal health in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Clinical Oral Investigations. Accepted.
  • Karnati S, Seimetz S, Kleefeldt F, Sonawane A, Thati M, Kosanovic D, Weissmann N, Krüger K, Ergün S. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the cardiovascular system: vascular repair and regeneration as a therapeutic target. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. 2021 Apr 12;8:649512.
  • Dorneles G, Lira L, Romão P, Krüger K, Neto JR, Peres A, Moura Antunes B. Level of cardiorespiratory fitness in men exerts strong impact on lymphocyte function after mitogen stimulation. Journal of Applied Physiology, 2021 Apr 1;130(4):1133-1142.


  • Dobler LC, Krüger B, Strahler J, Weyh C, Gebhardt K, Tello K, Ghofrani HA, Sommer N, Gall H, Richter MJ, Krüger K. Physical activity and mental health of patients with pulmonary hypertension during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2020 Dec 12;9(12):4023.
  • Batatinha H, Krüger K, Rosa Neto JC. Thromboinflammation and Covid-19: The role of aerobic exercise from the prevention to the treatment. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. Accepted.
  • Batatinha H, Tavares‐Silva E, Geovana  Leite G, Resende AS, Albuquerque JAT,  Arslanian J, Fock RA, Lancha AH, Lira FS, Krüger K, Thomatieli‐Santos R, Rosa‐Neto R. Probiotic supplementation in marathonists and its impact on lymphocyte population and function after a marathon: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Scientific Reports, 2020 Nov 2;10(1):18777.
  • Weyh C, Pilat C, Krüger K. Musculoskeltal disorders and the level of physical activity in welders. Occupational Medicine. Accepted.
  • Wasserfurth P, Palmowski J, Hahn A, Krüger K. Reasons and consequences of low energy intake in female and male athletes: social environment, adaptations and and prevention. Sports Medicine-Open, 2020 Sep 10;6(1):44.
  • Wasserfurth P, Nebl J, Bosslau T, Krüger K, Hahn A, Schuchardt JP. 12-weeks of Calanus finmarchicus oil intake improves Omega-3 Index in healthy older subjects engaging in an exercise program. British Journal of Nutrition, 2020 Jul 23;1-8.
  • Wasserfurth P, Nebl J, Schuchardt JP, Müller M, Bosslau T, Krüger K, Hahn A.Effects of exercise combined with a healthy diet and Calanus finmarchicus oil supplementation on body composition and metabolic markers - a pilot study. Nutrients. 2020 Jul 18;12(7):2139.
  • Reichel T, Bosslau T, Palmowski J, Eder K, Ringseis R, Walscheid R, Bothur E, Samel S, Frech T, Philippe M, Krüger K. Reliability and suitability of physiological exercise response and recovery markers. Scientific Reports, 2020 Jul 17;10(1):11924.
  • Waller L, Krüger K, Conrad K, Weiss A, Alack K. Effects of different types of exercise training on pulmonary arterial hypertension: a systematic review. Journal of Clinical Medicine. Accepted.
  • Wackerhage H, Everett R, Krüger K, Murgia M, Simon P, Gehlert S, Neuberger E, Baumert P, Schönfelder M. Sport, Exercise and COVID19, the Disease Caused by the SARS-CoV-2 Virus. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin 5, 2020.
  • Mooren FC, Krüger K, Ringseis R, Eder K, Liebisch G, Conrad K, Alack K, Maleki BH. The combined effects of moderate exercise and short-term fasting on markers of immune function in healthy human subjects. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. Accepted. 
  • Mooren FC, Maleki BH, Pilat C, Ringseis R, Eder K, Teschler M, Krüger K. Effects of Eschrichia coli strain Nissle 1917 on exercise-induced disruption of gastrointestinal integrity. European Journal of Applied Physiology. Accepted.
  • Ringseis R, Beer AM, Albrecht Y, Gaiping W, Most E, Krüger K, Eder K. Nicotinic acid improves endurance performance of mice subjected to treadmill exercise. Metabolites 2020, 10 (4): 138.
  • Weyh C, Pilat C, Frech T, Krüger K, Reichel T, Mooren FC. Exercise training reduces workload, improves physical performance and promotes overall health in welders. Journal of Occupational Health, 2020 Dec 12;70(8):586-592.
  • Simpson RJ, Campbell JP, Gleeson M, Krüger K, Nieman DC, Pyne DB, Turner JE, Walsh NP. Can exercise affect immune function to increase susceptibility to infection?. Exercise Immunology Review 2020;26:8–22.
  • Weyh C, Krüger K, Prüller-Strasser B. Physical activity shape the Immune system during Aging. Nutrients. Febr. 28: 12(3) 2020.
  • Alack K, Weiss A, Krüger K, Höret M, Schermuly R, Frech T, Eggert M, Mooren FC. Profiling of human lymphocytes reveals a specific network of Protein kinases modulated by Endurance Training status. Scientific Reports 1, 2020.


  • Palmowski J, Reichel T, Boßlau TK, Krüger K. The effect of acute running and cycling exercise on T cell apoptosis in humans: A systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. 2020, 91(2), e12834.
  • Alack K, Pilat C, Krüger K. Current knowledge and new challenges in exercise immunology. German Journal of Sports Medicine 10, 2019.
  • Palmowski J, Boßlau TK, Ryl L, Krüger K, Reichel T. Managing immune health in sports- a practical guide for athletes and coaches. German Journal of Sports Medicine 10, 2019. 
  • Philippe M, Gatterer H, Burtscher M, Weinberger B, Keller M, Grubeck-Loebenstein B, Fleckenstein J, Alack K, Krüger K. Concentric and eccentric endurance exercise reverse hallmarks of T cell senescence in pre-diabetic subjects. Frontiers in Physiology 4, 2019.
  • Tello K, Ghofrani HA, Heinze C, Krüger K, Naeije R, Raubach C, Seeger W, Sommer N, Gall H, Richter MJ. A simple echocardiographic estimate of right ventricular-arterial coupling to assess severity and outcome in pulmonary hypertension on chronic lung disease. European Respiratory Journal 5, 2019.
  • Batatinha H, Rosa-Neto JC, Krüger K. Inflammatory features of obesity and smoke exposure and the immunologic effects of exercise. Exercise Immunology Review 25, 2019.
  • Batatinha H, Diniz TA, Teixeira AAS, Krüger K, Rosa-Neto JC. Regulation of autophagy as a therapy for immunosenescence-driven cancer and neurodegenerative diseases: The role of exercise. Journal of Cellular Physiology 2, 2019.
  • Krüger K, Reichel T, Zeilinger C. Role of Heat Shock Proteins in exercise physiology, exercise immunology and their diagnostics in sports. Journal of Applied Physiology 4, 2019.


  • Alack A, Krüger K, Weiss A, Schermuly R, Frech T, Eggert M, Mooren FC. Aerobic endurance training status affects lymphocyte apoptosis sensitivity by induction of molecular genetic adaptations. Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityBrain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2019, 75: 251–7. 
  • Despeghel M., Krüger K, Hein-Rusinek U. Auswirkungen eines 12-wöchigen präventivmedizinisch-orientierten Minimalprogrammes auf Gewicht, Blutdruck und die gesundheitsbezogene Lebensqualität. ASU Arbeitsmedizin | Sozialmedizin | Umweltmedizin. 2018, 53: 725–30. 
  • Qiu S, Bosnyák E, Treff G, Steinacker JM, Nieß A, Krüger K, Mooren FC, Zügel M, Schumann U. Acute exercise-induced irisin release in healthy adults: associations with training status and exercise mode European Journal of Sport Science, 2018.
  • Krüger K, Seimetz S, Ringseis R, Wilhelm J, Pichl A, Couturier A, Eder K, Weissmann N, Mooren FC. Exercise training reverses inflammation and muscle wasting after smoke exposure. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 2018, 314(3): R366–76.
  • Madani A, Richter M, Alack K, Krüger K. Immune-regulating effects of exercise on cigarette smoke induced inflammation. Journal of Inflammation Research. 2018, 24;11: 155–67. (invited review)
  • Maleki, BH, Tartibian B, Mooren, FC, Fitzgerald LZ, Krüger K, Chehrazi M, Abbas M. Low-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise training modulates irritable bowel syndrome through antioxidative and inflammatory mechanisms in women: results of a randomized controlled trial. Cytokine. 2018, 102: 18–25. 


  • Krüger, K. Inflammation during Obesity – Pathophysiological Concepts and Effects of Physical Activity. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin. 2017, 7: 163–9. (invited review)
  • Richter MJ, Grimminger J, Krüger B, Ghofrani HA, Mooren FC, Gall H, Pilat C, Krüger K. Effects of exercise training on pulmonary hemodynamics, functional capacity and inflammation in pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary Circulation. 2017, 1;7(1): 20–37.
  • Bermon S, Castell LM, Calder PC, Bishop NC, Blomstrand E, Mooren FC, Krüger K, Kavazis AN, Quindry JC, Senchina D, Nieman DC, Gleeson M, Pyne DB, Kitic C, Close GL, Larson-Meyer DE, Marcos A, Meydani SN, Wu D, Walsh NP, Nagatomi R. Consensus Statement Immunonutrition and Exercise. Exercise Immunology Review. 2017; 23: 8–50.
  • Gronau T, Krüger K, Prein P, Aszodi A, Gronau I, Iozzo RV, Mooren FC, Clausen-Schaumann H, Bertrand J, Pap T, Bruckner P, Dreier R. Forced exercise-induced osteoarthritis is attenuated in mice lacking the small leucin-rich proteoglycan decorin. Annals of Rheumatic Diseases. 2017, 76(2): 442–9.
  • Muders K, Pilat C, Deuster V, Frech T, Krüger K, Pons-Kühnemann J, Mooren FC. Effects of Traumeel (Tr14) on recovery and inflammatory immune response after repeated bouts of exercise: A double-blind RCT. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2017, 117(3): 591–605.
  • Liu R, Fan W, Krüger K, Xiaou Y, Pilat C, Seimetz M, Ringseis R, Baumgart-Vogt E, Eder K, Weissmann N, Mooren FC. Exercise affects T cell function via modifying intracellular calcium homeoostasis. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2017, 49(1): 29–39.
  • Pilat C, Krüger K, Frech T, Mooren FC. Comparison of exercise-induced cytokine changes in antigen stimulated whole-blood cultures and serum. Journal of Immunological Methods. 2017, 440: 58–66. 


  • Krüger K, Alack K, Ringseis R, Mink K, Pfeifer E, Schinle M, Gindler K, Kimmelmann L, Walscheid R, Muders K, Frech T, Eder K, Mooren FC. Apoptosis of T-Cell Subsets after Acute High-Intensity Interval Exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2016, 48(10): 2021–9.
  • Krüger K, Bredehöft J, Mooren FC, Rummel C. Strength and endurance exercise training differently affect COX-2 and mPGES expression in mouse brain independent of peripheral inflammation. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2016, 121(1): 248–54.
  • Mardare C*, Krüger K*, Liebisch G, Seimetz M, Couturier A, Ringseis R, Wilhelm J, Weissmann N, Eder K, Mooren FC. Endurance as well as resistance training affect high fat diet induced increase of ceramides, inflammasom expression and systemic inflammation in mice. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2016;2016: 4536470. *Both authors similarly contributed to the manuscript
  • Krüger K, Pilat C, Tirekoglou P, Frech T, Mooren FC. Positions- und Spielklassenspezifität anthropometrischer und konditioneller Faktoren im Männerhandball. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin. 2016, 6: 144–9.
  • Krüger K, Mooren FC, Pilat C. Effects of physical activity on Immunomodulation. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2016;22(24): 3730–48. (invited review)
  • Meurer S, Krüger K, Mooren FC. MicroRNAs unter Einfluss körperlicher Belastung. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin. 2016, 2.
  • Despeghel M, Krüger K. Effects of a 12-week Minimum Program for Preventive Medical Purposes. British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research. 2016,17(1): 1–7.
  • Hajizadeh Maleki B, Tartibian B, Mooren FC, Krüger K, FitzGerald LZ, Chehrazi M. A randomized controlled trial examining the effects of 16 weeks of moderate-to-intensive cycling and honey supplementation on lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage and cytokine changes in male road cyclists. Cytokine. 2016, 88: 222–31.
  • Muders K, Pilat C, Deuster V, Frech T, Krüger K, Pons-Kühnemann J, Mooren FC. Effects of Traumeel (Tr14) on exercise-induced muscle damage response in healthy subjects: A double-blind RCT. Mediators of Inflammation. 2016;2016: 1693918. 


  • Krüger K, Pilat C, Schild M, Lindner N, Frech T, Muders K, Mooren FC. Progenitor cell mobilization after exercise is related to systemic levels of G-CSF and muscle damage. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. 2015, 25(3): e283–91.
  • Krüger K, Dischereit G, Seimetz M, Wilhelm J, Weissmann N, Mooren FC. Time course of cigarette smoke-induced changes of systemic inflammation and muscle structure. American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. 2015,15;309(2): L119–28.
  • Krüger K, Petermann C, Pilat C, Schubert E, Pons-Kühnemann J, Mooren FC. Preventive strength training improves working ergonomics during welding. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics. 2015, 21(2): 150-7.
  • Mooren FC, Krüger K. Apoptotic lymphocytes induce progenitor cell mobilization after exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2015, 119(2): 135–9.
  • Mooren FC, Krüger K. Exercise, Autophagy, and Apoptosis. Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science. 2015, 135: 407–22. (invited review)
  • Ringseis R, Eder K, Mooren FC, Krüger K. Metabolic Signals and Innate Immune Activation in Obesity and Exercise. Exercise Immunology Review. 2015, 21: 58–68.
  • Schild M, Eichner G, Beiter T, Zügel M, Krumholz-Wagner I, Hudemann J, Pilat C, Krüger K, Nieß A, Steinacker JM, Mooren FC. Effects of acute endurance exercise on plasma protein profiles of endurance trained and untrained individuals over time. Mediators of Inflammation. 2016; 2016: 4851935.
  • Schild M, Ruhs A, Beiter T, Velders M, Hudemann J, Schmidt A, Krumholz I, Keller J, Eder K, Krüger K, Krüger M, Braun T, Nieß A, Steinacker J, Mooren FC. Basal and exercise induced label-free quantitative protein profiling of m. vastus lateralis in trained and untrained individuals. Journal of Proteomics. 2015, 3;122: 119–32.
  • Pilat C, Frech, T, Wagner A, Krüger K, Hillebrecht A, Pons-Kühnemann J, Scheibelhut, C, Bödeker RH, Mooren FC. Exploring effects of a natural combination medicine on exercise-induced inflammatory immune response. A double-blind RCT. The Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. 2015, 25(4): 534–42. 


  • Krüger K, Klocke R, Kloster J, Nikol S, Waltenberger J, Mooren, FC. Activity of daily living is related to numbers of CD34/KDR cells and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in patients after myocardial infarction. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2014, 1;116(5): 532–7.
  • Krüger K, Pilat C, Ueckert K, Frech T, Mooren FC. Physical performance profile of handball players is related to playing position and playing class. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research 2014, 28(1): 117–25.
  • Krüger K, Kosanovic D, Schermuly RT, Mooren FC, Weissmann N, Seimetz M. Exercise in pulmonary diseases – good or bad?! An inflammatory point of view. Pulmonary Circulation. 2014, Vol. 1 Issue 2. (invited review)
  • Krüger K, Mooren FC., Eder K, Ringseis, R. Immune and Inflammatory Signaling Pathways in Exercise and Obesity. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2014, 8: 268–79. (invited review)
  • Krüger K, Mooren FC. Exercise induced leukocyte apoptosis. Exercise Immunology Review2014, 20: 117–34.
  • Weissmann N, Peters D, Kloepping C, Krüger K, Pilat C, Katta S, Seimetz M, Ghofrani A, Schermuly R, Witzenrath M, Seeger W, Grimminger F, Mooren FC. Structural and functional prevention of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension by individualized exercise training in mice. American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. 2014, 1;306(11): L986–95.
  • Mooren FC, Viereck J, Krüger K, Thum T. Circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers of aerobic exercise capacity. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2014, 306(4): H557–63.
  • Gutekunst K, Krüger K, August C, Diener M, Mooren FC. Acute exercise induce disorders in the gastrointestinal system in a murine model. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2014, 114(3): 609–17. 


  • Krüger K, Banisch J, Ringseis R, Gessner DK, Eder K, Seimetz M, Weissmann N, Mooren FC. Functional and muscular adaptations in a murine model of strength training. PLoS ONE. 2013, 13;8(11): e79069.
  • Khan M, Ringseis R, Mooren FC, Krüger K, Most E, Eder K. Niacin supplementation increases the number of oxidative fibers in skeletal muscle of growing pigs. BMC Veterinary Research. 2013, 9;9: 177.
  • Scholz K, Kynast AM, Couturier A, Mooren FC, Krüger K, Most E, Eder K, Ringseis R. Supplementing healthy rats with a high Niacin dose has no effect on muscle fiber distribution and muscle metabolic phenotype. European Journal of Nutrition. 2014, 53(5): 1229–36.
  • Khan M, Couturier A, Kubens JF, Most E,Mooren FC, Krüger K, Ringseis R, Eder K. Niacin supplementation induces type II to type I muscle fiber transition in skeletal muscle of sheep. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavia. 2013, 22, 55: 85.
  • Couturier A, Ringseis R., Mooren FC, Krüger K, Most E, Eder K. Carnitin supplementation to obese zucker rats prevents obesity induced type II to Type I muscle fiber transition and favors and oxidative phenotype of muscles. Nutrition & Metabolism. 2013,10;10: 48.
  • Bobrich M, Schwabe SA, Brobeil A, Viard M, Kamm M, Mooren FC, Krüger K, Tag C, Wimmer M. PTPIP51 – a new interaction partner of the insulin receptor and PKA in adipose tissue. Journal of Obesity, 2013;2013: 476240.  


  • Mooren FC, Völker K, Krüger K. Exercise delays neutrophils apoptosis by a G-CSF dependent mechanism. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2012,113(7): 1082–90.
  • Ringseis R, Rosenbaum S, Gessner D, Herges L, Mooren FC, Krüger K, Eder K. Supplementation with niacin increases PPARg-dependent gene expression and induces muscle fiber transition from glykolytic to oxidative in skeletal muscle of obese zucker rats. Journal of Nutrition. 2012, 143(2):125–31.
  • Pilat C, Krüger K, Frech T, Mooren FC. Umfang sportmedizinischer und sportwissenschaftlicher Betreuung im deutschen Spitzenhandball. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin. 2012, 11: 324–28.
  • Krüger K, Mooren FC. Sport, Immunsystem und rheumatologische Erkrankungen. Aktuelle Rheumatologie2012, 37(03): 189–95 (invited review) 


  • Krüger K, Agnischock S, Lechtermann A., Tiwari S., Mishra M., Pilat C., Wagner A., Tweddell C, Gramlich I, Mooren FC. Intensive resistance exercise induces lymphocyte apoptosis via cortisol and glukocorticoid receptor dependent pathways. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2011, 110(5): 1226–32.
  • Ringseis R, Mooren FC, Keller J, Couturier A, Wen G, Hirche F, Stangl GI, Eder K, Krüger K. Regular endurance exercise improves the dimished hepatic carnitine status in mice fed a high fat diet. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 2011, 552: S193–202.
  • Mooren FC, Völker K, Krüger K, Golf SW, Wadepuhl M, Kraus A. Oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects. A double blind placebo controlled randomized trial. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2011,13(3): 281–4.
  • Bobrich M, Brobeil A, Mooren FC, Krüger K, Steger K, Tag C, Wimmer M. PTPIP51 interaction with PTP1b and 14-3-31ß in adipose tissue of insulin resistant mice. International Journal of Obesity. 2011, 35: 1385–94.
  • Ruscheweyh R, Willemer C, Krüger K, Duning T, Warnecke T, Sommer J, Völker K, Ho HV, Mooren F, Knecht S, Flöel A.Physical activity and memory functions: An interventional study. Neurobiology of Aging. 2011, 32(7): 1304–19.   


  • Krüger K, Frost S, Most E, Völker K, Pallauf J, Mooren FC. Exercise affects tissue lymphocyte apoptosis via redox-sensitive and Fas-dependent signaling pathways. American Journal of Physiology - Regulative, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 2009, 296(5): R1518–27.
  • Flöel A, Ruscheweyh R, Krüger K, Willemer C, Winter B, Völker K, Lohmann H, Zitzmann M, Mooren F, Breitenstein C, Knecht S. Physical activity and memory functions: Are neurotrophins and cerebral gray matter volume the missing link? Neuroimage. 2009, 9(3): 2756–63. 


  • Krüger K, Lechtermann A, Fobker M, Völker K, Mooren FC. Exercise induced redistribution of T lymphocytes is regulated by adrenergic mechanisms. Brain, Behaviour, and Immunity. 2008, 22(3): 324–38.  


  • Winter B, Breitenstein C, Mooren FC, Völker K, Fobker M, Lechtermann A, Krüger K, Fromme A, Korsukewitz C, Flöel A, Knecht S. Immediate improvement of cognition after physical exercise: High impact running enhances word learning. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. 2007, 87(4): 597–609.
  • Krüger K, Mooren FC. T cell homing and exercise. Exercise Immunology Reviews. 2007, 13: 37–54. (invited review) 


  • Krüger K. Geben Sie Bakterien und Viren keine Chance. Mit einem starken Immunnsystem durchs Leben. Scorpio Verlag, 2019.
  • Krüger K, Mooren FC: Adaptation durch Bewegung. In: Praxisbuch Prävention und Therapie durch Sport, 2018.
  • Krüger K. Rheumatoide Arthritis. In: Mooren, Reimer: Praxisbuch Prävention und Therapie durch Sport, 2018.
  • Krüger K. Spondylitis ankylosans. In: Mooren, Reimers: Praxisbuch Prävention und Therapie durch Sport, 2018.
  • Krüger K. Die wachsende Bedeutung immunregulatorischer Effekte von körperlicher Aktivität (Editorial). Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin. 2017, 12: 277-279. (invited editorial)
  • Krüger K. Der stille Feind in meinem Körper. Wie chronische Entzündungen uns krank machen und was wir dagegen tun können. Scorpio-Verlag, 2017.
  • Krüger K, Schild M, Zügel M, Beiter T, Schumann U, Steinacker JM, Niess A, Mooren FC. Optimierung von Training und Wettkampf. Belastungs- und Anpassungsmanagement im Spitzensport. BISP Jahrbuch 2016.
  • Hillebrecht A, Bauer P, Frech T, Walscheid R, Linnenweber S, Wyss D, Barthelmes C, Krüger K, Willmund G, Mooren FC, Nöring R, Zeißler S. Effects of an Exercise Intervention on Metabolism and Quality of Life in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Advances in Ergonomic Design of Systems, Products and Processes. 2016, pp 177-187.
  • Krüger K, Mooren FC. Sporttherapie bei Spondylitis ankylosans. In. Mooren, Knapp, Reimers: Prävention und Therapie durch Sport. Elsevier Verlag, 2015, Band 3.
  • Krüger K, Mooren FC. Sport und Rheumatoide Arthritis. In. Mooren, Knapp, Reimers: Prävention und Therapie durch Sport. Elsevier Verlag, 2015, Band 3.
  • Mooren FC, Krüger K. Fitness-Handbuch für Schweißer. Abicor-Binzel, 2014.
  • Krüger K. Morbus Bechterew - Kann Sport die Entzündung regulieren? Morbus Bechterew Journal, Frühjahr 2013.
  • Krüger K. Lungensport - Rehabilitatives Training statt "nur" Üben. Luftpost. Ausgabe Frühjahr 2012.
  • Jäger J, Krüger K. (Herausgeber): Der Muskel im Sport. KVM Verlag 2012 (Fachbuch).
  • Krüger K, Mooren FC. Möglichkeiten der Trainingseffektivierung und Diagnostik im Belastungs- / Erholungszyklus. BISp-Jahrbuch Forschungsförderung 2011/12.
  • Krüger K. Lymphocytes. In: Mooren, F.C. (Herausgeber): Exercise Medicine in Health and Disease. Springer 2011.
  • Mooren FC, Pilat C, Stein B, Krüger K, Hessels J. Limitierungen der sportlichen Leistungsfähigkeit durch Störungen der gastrointestinalen Integrität. BISP Jahrbuch Forschungsförderung 2009/10.
  • Krüger K. Gesundheitsmanagement im Polizeidienst III: Der ergonomische Arbeitsplatz. Polizeispiegel. 2009, 5: 33-42.
  • Krüger K. Ernährung am Arbeitsplatz. Polizeispiegel. 2009, 4: 27-36.
  • Tunca E, Krüger K, Mooren FC. Exercise, Stem Cells and Cancer. In: Cancer and Stem Cells. Editor: Thomas Dittmar and Kurt S. Zänker. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2008.
  • Krüger K. Gesundheitsmanagement im Polizeidienst. Polizeispiegel. 2007, 5: 16-25. 

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