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A middle English lapidary

A middle English lapidary
Arne Zettersten (ed.): A Middle English lapidary. Lund 1968.
-- Digitale Fassung & eine Korrektur: Th. Gloning, 19.10.96 ; [mail]
-- Zeilengetreue Erfassung; Silbentrennung aufgehoben, Originalfoliierung, Apparat, Kursivierungen, Zeilenzähler nicht übernommen; {xx} = Seite der Edition; <z> = Yogh
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{23} Here begynnyth the lapidarie the whiche tellith the vertues of
xxxvj precious stones as hit appereth hereafter.

Hit is redde in bokes that Evax the kyng of Arabye sente a
booke to Nero, the Emperour of Rome, the whiche tolde hym
þe strenkthis and vertues of the stonys and here names & here
coloures & the contrees where they ben founde. Here vertues
been right grete. And they in many caases have pouer, where
erbis and medecynes may not avayle. And be yee seker that it is
noo doute þat god hathe put vertues in stonys, in wordes and in
herbis & often tyme shulde shewe meruelous vertues, ne were
the lettynge of the faute of beleue & synne of moche folke. &
wete yoe well that god made gretter tresour of stoonys and yave
them gretter vertues & gretter might thenne he did to herbis.
Wherefore he oughte to be highly thankyd of his yiftis to be
resceyved for all thynges he hathe maade for vs & frely hath to
vs yeven.


The dyamounde comyth owte of grete Ynde and oute of Arabye.
Tho that come oute of Arabye be callid þe Females. And tho that
come oute of Ynde ben callid the males. The male diamounde is
broun and lyke oyle of colour. There is no diamounde gretter
thenne a smale note and they ben passynge harde. They cutte and
graue in iron and stele, in glas and stone & hit is helper to
enchaunteres. She yeveth hym þat berith here might and strengthe,
and she lettith dremys and grevous swheuenys and fantasyes
and all venomys. She puttith away ire and stryfe and heleth
{24} hem that ben owte of here witte, and she defendeth and
strengtheth a man ayenst his foo. And she kepith a man in suyche
worshipp and witte and richesse, as she fyndith hym in and
rather encresith his worshipp and richesse. She kepith a mannes
bonys and membris hoole. Þough a man fall down oute of a
castell or oute of a carte or of his hors, his bones shall not breke.
His vertu is gretter whenne he is yeven frely thenne whenne hit
is bought, but yf hit be bought with trewe goten goode, she
letteth the fayre that comyth a night. And she putteth away
lecchery and who that bereth hit, he shall not be lightly combryd,
if he love god. And he kepith mannis sede withinne womannes
body and maketh the childe to be borne with all his hole membres.
And hit woll be sette in noo metall but in steele. And hit shulde
be borne on the lifte syde.


Saphyres ben covenabele for Kynges & Erles. The firste
iprevyde come from Flome Iordon and ben founde in the graveyle
of Libee. And they ben lyke to an erbe called purselane. & hit
is right shynynge & of a gentill colour blewe þerabowte. & other
maner of Saphires there be founde faste by a grete rok þat men
calle Paray & is holde of lesse valour, but all ben of the tresour
of god. A nother maner of sapheres þer bee that come fro the depe
Turkey. They be derke & shynyth not, but they be well yproved
in vertu. Of these thre maner of sapheers þer is but oon hathe
moore vertu þenne a nother. God loveth the sapheer soo moche
that he calleth it the holy stone & the gemme of gemmes.
Whenne men beholde sapheers, they shulde haue here mynde to
the hevenly regyne. A saphire comforteth the herte and the
membres. Hit ouercomith noye and envye & withholdith man
fro enprisonyng. And if he be take, it helpeth moche to his
delyueraunce. Þe prisoner shulde touche therwith his fetteres
& the iiij corners of the preson. Also hit is goode to acordement
þat be at debate. & it is goode to hele bocchis and swhellynges.
And who soo hathe empostumes in his body, yf he grynde it &
drynke hit with mylke, hit shall hele the sekenesse thorow the
vertu that god hathe yoven to the saphire. And hit colith a man
{25} that hathe to moche hete in his body and that swhetith
euermoche. Also it termyneth all hote maladyes, and it dothe away
all vnclennesse and filthe fro the eyen and the peyne in the hede,
and hit is goode for the sekenesse of the tonge. Also god yeuith
counsaill to hym that bereth hit & kepith hym that berith it
seure. Also hit distroyeth wicchcrafte. Also who so woll prove all
the vertues of the sapher moste be chaste, and it moste be sette
in goolde.


The Emeraudes be grene and they come fro the flode of Paradise
and fro Sire. Tho that come fro Sire ben better and moore gentyll
colour. And oon maner of folke that ben called Areples goo full
armed to fecche them, and they wynne them fro grete fooes by
bataille. The playn emeraude is full goode to loke vpon and to
beholdyn. The kyng Nero hadde a merour whereon he lokyd &
behelde & ofte be strengthe of tho stones he wiste and knewe
what euer he wolde enquere. And he enc[r]esith riches to hym
þat berith hit clenly. And she maketh a mannes worde acceptabele,
whill he werith it aboute his nekke, and she is goode for the
goute and she amendeth the sight and she puttith from hym
that bereth here tempestis and lechery. God hathe yoven to
hym suche a vertu that he that berith it shall kepe hym clene &
makith hym to thynke on his sowle & it moste be sette in goolde.


Iasperes ben ix maneres and they ben of dyuerse colours. And
they ben founde in diuerse places of the worlde. But she is beste
that is grene as the embrawdes towarde þe day and she is depe
grene. & whenne she is polyshid, she hathe rede dropes. She is
goode of vertu to hym that bereth hire warme and she kepith a
man from the dropesy and fro the feueris. & she is helper to a
woman þat travayleth of childe. And she defendith hym that
so bereth here fro contrarious chaunces and makyth a man to be
{26} loved & stronge. And she puttith away fantesyes & myscheves
& she staunchith þe blody flyx. And here vertu is gratter
whenne she is in syluer thenne in goolde or ony oþer metall. And
she swhetith agayn venym.


Crysolite is lyke the water of the see, and she hathe withynne
here sparkelis of goolde. & she is goode to be don on a man for
febilnesse of nature. & he þat berith here shall not be hasty in
evyll. And she is a grete helpere to a man for to entre into what
place hym lyketh & for to be gracious and lovyng. & whoo
fyndeth here & persith an hole in the myddes of hir & putteth
thorow an here of an asse, he may with here make enchauntemente
þe devell. But she moste be sette in goode goolde and borne on
the lefte syde. And this stone comyth from Ethiopie.


Topace comyth fro the flode of the Este. And they ben of two
maneres & they ben lyke to fyne goolde. But that oone is more
clere thenne þat other. And she is moche worthe to a sekenesse
þat is calleth Fy, þat is whenne prowde Flessh growith lyke a
werte & she sewith þe mone. For whenne the moone is at the
fulle, she is troubill, & whenne it is fayre weder, she is fayre and
clere shynynge. And she kepith a man colde & more chaste and
she most be sette in goolde.


The Vnycle comyth fro Ynde & fro Arabye. Vnycles & sardones
& calsodonyyes ben contrarious togedyr. The vnycle holdith a
man hardy & courtays and irous. & he that bereth hire on his
fynger and hangith here aboute his nekke, yif he woll speke with
his frende that is dede, he shall speke with hym in the night in his
slepe. & in the morowe he shall have well his mynde þeron and
shall well wete what the dede hathe nede to. Yef he be playn to
hym, she kepith hym sure that bereth here & yeveth hym grete
{27} beaute. And she is of blak colour and she hathe here vertu with
goolde & without goolde.


The sardynes ben of two coloures, rede and blak medelid togeder.
And she tempereth an irous man to haue goode reste a nyghtes
and holdith a man symple and chaste. She staunchith blode &
kepith a woman fro perill of dethe in childyng.


The Calsidonye is of a white trowbill colour & makyth hym that
bereth hir of fayre spekyng and full of eloquence. And yf he
plete, shewe this stone to his aduersarie, she helpith moche his
cause. & he þat berith the vnycle & the sardony and the
calcedoyne, makeþ a man well tacchidde.


The Achates is founde in the este in a flode that is callid Achate
& ben of many maner. And they ben full of many whyte veynes.
There ben fyve suche that haue white veynes, and they fyve haue
more shappe of bestes thenne of leves, as of ryches, and of
sondry vaynis that nature hathe put in hem. And they atempir
the hede & comforte olde men. & there be achates of a nother
maner of colour like corall, & they haue dropes like goolde. & a
nother hathe sauour of myrre, a nother is lyke wax. All these
maner of [a]chates been goode ayen venom & bytyng of serpentes.
And she kepith a man fro sekenesse and she encresith a mannes
strengthe. And she yeveth a man eloquence & goode colour &
goode counsaill and she makith hym to be biloved. And she
kepith a man plesaunt to godde and the worlde.


Cornelines is lyke to a kattys eye. She puttith away wrath &
restraynyth moche all blody veynys. & ladyes owe to loue it
tofore all other stones, for she comforteth hym moche of here
sekenesse & maketh hem pleasyng & amiable.


Iaconutes is of ij maner. Iaconute gernates is rede and gentill
maid, and she is of grete vertu, for she kepith a man mylde and
makeþ hym to beholde trewe. And there is a nother maner
Iaconutes that is yelowe, and he is callid Iaconute ceteren. These
ij Iaconute be of suche vertu that who soo puttith hem in his
mouthe, she kelith hym. & whoso bereth hit on hym, he may
goo into other landis withoute drede and hym not to came of noo
touchynge. & where he comyth, he shall be well worshipped of
his hoste. Where so euer he come, he shall not be wernyd of
noo resonable þyng that he askyth. She shulde be sette in goolde.


The Balies is a stone that comyth oute of an Ile betwene þe
sees þat is namede Corinthie. And she draweth to the colour of
a rubye. She colith moche a man of hete and leccherye. And whoo
soo touchith the iiij corneres of his chambre, or of his house, or
of his gardyn with that stone, there shall no venemus wormes, nor
bestis, nor tempestis do noo harme þerto. She staunchith debatis
and who soo shewith it to his enemye, who soo euer he be, he shall
accorde with hym. And who soo bereth here amonge his enemyes,
may come agayne saufe and sounde of all his membris. Balies
shulde be sette in fyn goolde.


Þe Amatiste is a purpill colour & shynynge, and she is founde
in grete Inde. And she comforteth a man moche bothe in body
{29} and in sowle þat bereth hire clenly. & he that hathe here, may
surely hunte, for she is of soo grete vertu that the wilde bestes
come to hym that bereth here. And she is comforte ayenste
dronkenesse. She is goode bothe in goolde & in siluer.


Rubies ouercomyth all rede stonys. The clene ruby is of soo clene
colour lyke to a brennynge cole. She is lorde of stones. She is the
gemme of gemmys and she hathe the vertu of xij prynsipall
stonys, and aboue all other she is of grete vertu that þe man that
bereth here, yef he come amonge folke, all they shall do hym
worshipp & shalle gladde of his comyng. And hit is thyng
yprovid that bestis that been syke, þat whenne the[y] haue
drunkyn of that water, in the whiche that stone hath been wasshen
in, they haue ben heled of theyre sekenesse. & they that haue
ben discomforted, haue ben comforted by lokyng on this stone
by vertu that god hathe put therenne & ofte foryeten here
hevynesse. She fedith the eyen & comfortith the body. She is
founden in Libee in the flome Pareis. She shulde be sette in
goode goolde.


Alectorius is a stone þat growith in a caponnes body & growith
in hym after þat he is iij yere olde and growith till he be vij yere
olde, and she growith noo gretter then a bene. And she is like
to a troubill cristall of colour. She yeveth hym þat bereth here
victory. & <z>if a man be fore a thriste and put here in his mouthe,
she staunchith his thriste. And many haue ouercome here
bataillis þorow vertu of that stone. & she swhagith and secith
debates & geteth a man goode frendes & makith a man faire
spekyng & amyabill. & yef a woman may not conseyve, lete
here bere þat stone & she shall conceyve. And she is goode for a
woman þat woll be belouyd of here lorde. But who soo euer bere
{30} it, he shall be lecherous. And who soo woll proue hit, he shulde
bere it in his mouthe and it shall þe sonner perfyten.


The Celydoyne is a stone þat is founde in a swhalowis bely. She
is not right fayre, neuertheles she is full goode. There ben of ij
maneres & of ij coloures. The oon is blak, the other dun. The dun
is goode agayn grevous pacience, þat seweth the cou[r]s of the
mone. She is moche werth tyll them þat ben owte of theyre witte
& for hem that lye in langowus. She makeþ a man wyly and well
avised in wordis and pleasyng to many. She shulde be borne in
lynnen cloth and on the lefte syde. The blake, who soo bereth
here in his purs, she shall helpe hym to the ende þat he begynnyth
& woll helpe moche a man þat is maneshed of wrath and of
angur. The water þat she is wasshe inne is goode for soore eyen &
for the axses. And she puttith away fleme & restraineth þe
humours þat that be noyous & contrarious to a mannys body.
She shulde be lapped in lynnene clothe deyede in grene.


The Adamaunde is a stone þat comyth out of Inde. She is of
colour of synder of iron. God hathe put vertu as in other stonis.
She drawith iron to here. There is noo stone soo moche worth to
an enchaunter as she. In olde tyme þe enchaunteres wolde put
quykke brennyng coles in the foure partes of the howse that they
come inne and ouer the colis they wolle drawe the stone, and
folke that sawe þat wolde leue the hows as hit hadde ben [...].
By vertu of that stone þe shipmen knowyn þe wynde. She is
moche worth to make man & woman that vsith to drynke of hit
in mylke. Hit is gode for the dropesy. She hathe grete grace &
she makyth a man of goode counsaill and maketh hym a fayr
speker and holdith hym in grete state. And who soo shewith hire
on roste flessh with wyne and it helpith to herte brennyng.


The Eletropye surmountyth many other stonys in vertu. God
hathe yeven hir suche a vertu and strengthe þat that puttith
hir in a vessell full of water agayn the sonne, hit semeth to hym
that lokeþ þeron that she makeþ hit become rede and þat she
chaungith here colour & she makyth the water in shorte whyle to
boyle. A man that bereth her is a grete perchaser. She holdeþ a
man in grete hele & makeþ hym of grete fame. She staunchith
blode. She is goode agayn venym. And she comyth out of Ethiope
and Sypyr & Affryke. She is moche of the colour of the emerawde
saue she hathe sangwayn dropes.


Corall is a stone þat comyth owte and growith in the see as
herbis in the felde. & whenne she is owte of the see, she is rede as
a bowe. She is noo lenger thenne halfe a fote. She is full gentill to
hym þat bereth here, for, as oure elders maistres seyen, she
sauyth hem fro thondyr & tempest & þe place þer she is. She
is goode to put in wyne or in a gardyn the nyght þe sethis who
soo kepe hym fro the evel tempeste. & she maketh the frute to
multeplie. She delyuereth a man fro fantasies. She gevyth hym
that bereth hir goode begynnyng and goode endyng.


Geete is a stone that comyth oute of the contre that is ynamed
Lyte. She is a stone wel yprovyd. There is one maner of hem that
comyth owte of Grete Bretayne. She is blak and light and smothe.
And she is hoote, she drawith the stre to hire. She brennyth in
water and quenchith in oyle. She is goode to bere for a man þat
{32} hathe flewme betwene the skyn and the flessh as a man that is
foundid for colde. The pouder of geete is goode for to fasten tethe
them that be loce, & streynith a womannes nature benethe
whenne she is brennyd. & yef a woman sit naked, make powdyr
of geet & caste it into the stewe to hir. & yef she be no mayde,
she shall styrte vp wheþer she will or noo. Yef a man have the
fallyng evel, as soone as he felith þe sauour of Geete, he shall fall
downe. & edderys fleith away that felith the sauour of geete.
She is contrary agayn devellis & it is goode agayn frotynge of þe
bely and for hym that sittis to cacche crowys. And she distroyeth
wichecrafte and yef a woman be travaylyng of childe and drynke
of the water that Geete hathe leyn, in iij dayes she shalle [be]


Berall and Ires ben right lyke of colour of cristall. Berall is a
rounde stone. Iris is a stone þat hathe many seedis. The rounde
Berall yeveth fyre ayenste the sonne. The Irys maketh þe raynbowe
ayenste the sonne vpon the wall. The Berall norishith love
betwene man and woman & makeþ hym þat berith hit to be
worshippid. The water þat these stonys haue leyyn in is
medesynabyll for the eyen. Yf a maid drynke the water, hit standith
bulkynge & sighhynge. She is moche worth for all soores that
cometh of the lyuer & she helith the axesse. These ij stones come
oute of Inde.


Echites the Egill chesith hit byfore all other in the forthermore
ende of the worlde and bereth into here neste. Þat stone hathe
an other henne withynne hire that is moche worth for a woman
that is with childe þat she lesith not here childe. She shulde be
born on þe lefte arme. She kepith a man yongly & in meane
state. And she encresith a man in riches & makeþ hym well
avaunced & welbelouyd. She makeþ a childes witte to enc[r]eece
and kepeth hym in hele & puttith away the fallyng evyll fro a
{33} man. And if a man suppose that an other man will do hym harme,
lete hym put the stone afore hym vppon salt, þe whiles þat þe
man sittith at the borde. And yif he be gilty, he shall not ete,
whille þat stone stondith there. & remoue the stone and he shall
ete. This stone is rownde & she is founde in the grete see þat
comith abowte þe worlde. & the Egill sittith neuer on hire eggis
withoute hire, & she is moche worth to woman to be delyuered
sone of childe.


The Crysopas comyth oute of Inde & is lyke of colour to iuce of
applis. She shinyth lyke goolde. & he þat berith here shall haue
moche grace & shal be welbelovid of all folke the whiche knowith


The Selentes is a grene fatty grenesse. She is callid the holy
stone, for she hathe felyng of the mone. And she kepith loue
betwen man & woman. She helpith moche folke þat ben in
langur or exilede. She is founde in the lande of Perse.


The begantoneles is spekelid as a roois skyn. Yef a lorde bere
hym vpon hym, whenne he gothe to bataill, he may his enemyes
put to flight. Arculis scapid many perill thorow the helpe of the
vertu of that stone.


The Bestuns comyth oute of the contre of Archadee. She is lyke
iron of colour. She is of meruelous maner & of suche natur þat,
yef she be onys takyn with fyr, she brennyth for euer & neuer
retourneth to vertu.


The Colonytes is a stone þat is called Fee. And he is like to
purpur of blake colour. And he is founde in Inde. & if a man put
it in his mouth erly in the morowe in the firste oure vnto þe six
oure, in the wexinge of the mone, he may dwelle in all partis
afterward, where he be come. & he encresith as dothe þe mone,
not in sight but in vertu and in might. & at the prime of the
mone thenne begynneth his vertu. & on þe day it is gode to
ladyes & withholdeth love. He woll not brenne with noo fuyre,
and somme say that he is lyke to Iasper colour and he is goode
for the fysyke. And somme sayn he comyth oute of Perse.


The Geonatides is blak & she is of suche kynde þat, if a man put
here in his mowthe, by the swhetnesse þerof, whenne hit is
wasshyn, he may wete what oþer men þynke of hym. And a
woman shall not deneye hym that he askith here. This stone may
be provid in suche wyse: Anoynte a man with hony and mylke in
the sune, where be many flyes. & if he bere it in his mowthe,
there shall no flye towche hym, & take away from hym the
stone, & anone they shall come to hym.


The Orides is sumwhat blak, but she drawith to the colour of
goulde. But she is moche worth agayne venom & agayn hurtyng
of wilde bestis. & he þat berith hir may surely goo thorogh
childernesse, for there shall no wilde beste nygh hym. There is a
nother maner that ben rowe on the oon syde and smothe on that
other syde. A woman þat berith here, may neuer conseyve. And
yef she haue consayved, she shall lose hir childe.


The Cristall is clere and whyte and she colith a man moche. Make
pouder of Cristall & yeve a norse hit to drynke, & she shall
multeplye hire mylke. Yef a stone haue loste his vertu, thorow
{35} synne of hym that berith hym, shryve hym & towche þe Crystall
with the stone, & thorow the vertu of the Cristall that stone
shall recouere his vertu.


The Allectide is the colour of asshes. A woman that drynketh of
the powder of hit in mylke, makeþ here to haue more mylke, but
she shulde vse hit afore mete and after bathyng & hange hit at
hire nekke with a wolle threde of an ewe white lambe. & yef this
stone be bownde on a woman þat travayleth, hit shall helpe
here to be sone delyuered. And yef pouder be made of it & be
sowyn amonge shepe that be clene wasshyn, they shall no moore
be scabbed, and who so rubbe here on a white stone, it shall have
the colour and the sauour of mylke. She comyth owte of the flode
of the este.


The Iaspes Pandres ben of many colours and of dyuerse maner.
Who so euer hathe this stone, yf he go to bataylle and wolde
ouercome his enemyes, he shulde loke on hire whenne the sonne
riseth, for þat helpeth hym moche to ouercome his aduersarye.
Hit holdith a man hardy & full of goodenesse. As many colours
as she hathe, as many vertues god hathe put in hire.


The Salkessyne sowneth & reboundith ayeen when he is smetyn
vppon. She yeveth a swhete voyse to hym that berith hire


The lygure is a stone that men calle lygure. A beste norrishid
here in the londe of Inde, & she hidith it for envy þat hire
vertues shulde not helpe vs. God ordeyned here to be soo vertuous
that she puttith away all soores of þe bely, & helith the Iaundise,
& staunchith the flix, & causith deseyse of the stomake, &
helith a spice of þe flix þat is called vteryce. Theofastes telleþ
{36} of þe maner colour of þat stones lyke golde, myrre & encence.
She drawith to hire a stre by strengthe. She shulde be set in fyne


The Crepaudes and Eddirtonges or ony other precyous stones that
god hathe yeven vertues, be not putte in the noumbre of the
forsaide xxxvj stones. The crepaude is found in the forehede of
the Toode aftyr she is vij yeere olde. Whenne the tode þat
berith here metith a man, he riseth on his feete fro the erthe for
pryde of þat stone. He is rounde & broune, but she hathe a
dounyssh whitenesse abowte hire. And who so woll take þat stone
fro that tode, lete hym take þat tode and putte hym in a newe
erthen potte full of holis in a grete ampthill depe, þat the amptes
may come in and owte and that thy pot be well couered, and the
amptys shall ete hym to the bones. Thenne may ye fynde þe
stone fittyng in þe forehede, and there may ye take hit she is
goode for venym, and who that berith here, she encresith his
goodenesse. She woll be sette in fyne goolde.


The eddyrtonges ben of dyuerse coloures & shape lyke tonges,
but tho that be browne & blak & the poynte of the tonge be
redissh agayne þe light, they ben of the grettest vertu. She
kepith a man þat berith here fro venym, & a man have hire in
his sight, yef folke wolde enpoysen hym. She shall swhete &
þerfore she is put in brochis of goolde & of syluer afore prynces
& lordis at mete þat they may have knowlege of þe poyson.
Yef þer be ony, she is goode in fyne golde. And in fyne syluer
she is founde in dyuersee places in þe sondis & gravell in Grete
Bretayn. That now is callede Ingelonde.

tg, 2/2002