Inhaltspezifische Aktionen

John Chamberlain (tr.), Of the use of coffee, 1685

John Chamberlayn: The manner of making coffee, tea and chocolate, as it is used in most parts of Europe, Asia, Africa and America. With their virtues. Newly done out of French and Spanish. London 1685.
-- Based on the EEBO digital version of the 'Early English Books, 1641-1700' microfilm 141/08. -- This is only the front matter and the section on coffee. The sections on tea and chocolate are currently 'work in progress'.
-- Transcription: Janet Clarkson (Australia), Thomas Gloning (Germany), 20/3/2004.
-- A note on the text: we have kept the original spelling, line break, however we have not kept hyphenation, in order not to disturb search operations. There are several forms that might irritate modern readers like peice for piece, however, these forms are documented in the OED as obsolete or dialect forms, that were used in former times (e.g. throughly, beleive, liqour, rhubard). In cases, where we assume erroneous forms we have put either "[!]" or have suggested the correct form along the pattern: xxx [>yyy], which means: we suggest, that the form xxx of the text should read yyy. -- There seems to be a lacuna or an error in pagination between page 20 and page 29; the text, however, allows for a coherent reading. -- In some places, we had to make up certain textual decisions based upon poor microfilm visual data, but we did our best and we did it silently. In case anything serious depends of the reading of this text (is there really a full stop after the word such and such?), you'd better check with the original ...
-- Textual history: needs further elucidation; see e.g. Vicaire 293ff.; Oberlé, Fastes, p. 416f.
-- (c) You may use this text for scholarly, personal and non-profit purposes only. Make sure that you do not violate copyright laws of your country in using this document. Do not remove this header from the file.
-- URL: (3/2004)


Manner of Making
As it is used
In most parts of
Europe, Asia, Africa,
and America.

With their Vertues.

Newly done out of French.
and Spanish.

Printed for William Crook at the Green
without Temple Bar near
Devereux Court, 1685.


Right Worshipful
Humbly Dedicated



NATURE desiring, that Man
should go forth of her hands as
a perfect Master-peice, and as a
Microcosm full of wonders, has made
him a present of a considerable apanage,
to wit, a sound and vigorous health,
that he may live the longer, and
exercise all his functions with the less
trouble. But as this health may be
easily alter'd and destroyed by an infinite
number both of external and internal
causes, the Divine Providence knowing
that nothing can be more profitable,
more agreeable, or more precious
to this her Creature, than this
incomparable benefit of health, without
which all the honours, all the riches,
and all the delights of the world do
perpetually incommode, vex, and
torment a Man, Tis therefore very
wise advice, to draw out of the bosom
of the Earth many sorts of Medicines,
as well for the conservations of those
Persons that are in perfect health, as
for the ease and cure of those that are
infirm and crazy.    In the mean time,
as Climates are very different th'one
from th'other, and as several Countries
produce different species, so Nature
has distributed certain Plants and
Drugs to some Countries, which she
has denied to others; to the end that
hereby she might the better favour
the mutual commerce of all People,
and for the better cementing humane
Society, at which she alwaies seems
particularly to aim, since she has
implanted the love and desire thereof
in the minds of all, except such as
are ill natur'd and Men-haters, who
seem to be abhortives and monsters
in Nature.    They therefore do seem
to clash with Reason, who in contempt
of the sacred Rules of Divine Providence,
do hold, that every Country
ought to be content with the sole use
of its own Drugs, without seeking after
those things wherewith Strangers
and Foreigners may furnish us.

For is it not the meer effect of a
capricious, and peevish humour, to
desire without any reason to deprive
Mankind of the use of those healthful
productions wherewith Nature from
all parts presents him, and to hinder
him from all advantages, which he
may thence expect? Now amongst all
the Drugs whereof Heaven has shewed
it self liberal to Men, there be three
chiefly which in our time have required
so great a vogue or credit, and so
particular an esteem through all
by the signal effects which they
are daily found to produce in an infinite
number of People, who make use
thereof with good success that I have
thought it a thing of great importance
to communicate to the publique some
Discourses and Treatises made on
this Subject, compiled and gathered
together in one Body, that our Nation,
alwayes curious and greedy of novelty,
may understand the very depth
and bottom of these abovesaid Drugs,
as well as others; the use whereof has
been but lately known amongst us, yet
they become more famous every day
than other, by the frequent and dayly
use we make of them, and with a
success which is no less wonderful than
profitable; those three Drugs which I
mean, and whereof I intend to treat
here, are COFFEE, TEA, and
CHOCOLATE: The two first
are simple Drugs, the latter is a
mixt composition of several Drugs.

COFFEE grows in Arabia, but
the other two come from the
viz. the Tea from the East-Indies,
and the
Chocolate (or Cacao nut,
whereof it is chiefly made) from the
West-Indies. The first peice I present
you with in this Book is a curious
Discourse of COFFEE, done into
French out of an Original Copy in
Latine, not long since composed by a
very learned Physitian of
who would be nameless, to the which
I have added some draughts gathered
out of the works of some learned
Travellers on this same subject.    The
Second Treatise consists of some
particular Remarks extracted from the
East-India Companies Embassy
to the Emperour of
China. From a
relation of the Voyage of the Bishop
Beryte to Cochinchina.    From
the Voyage of Father
Alexander of
Rhodes: And from the Medicinal
Observations of
Nicholas Tulpius a
[!] Physician of Amsterdam.

The last peice is a Discourse of
Chocolate, made by a Spanish
Physician, named
Antonio Colmenere
Ledesma. I am perswaded
that this little Collection
will be well accepted by all good men,
who shall thereby be enabled to
understand what excellent Vertues the
Creator has distributed to these three
foreign Drugs: Which shall so much
the more oblige them to admire and
bless the Sovereign Author of all
these Creatures, and shall render
them the more desirous to make good
use thereof, with continual Thanksgiving,
in all the Distempers wherewith
they shall find themselves either
threatned, or really afflicted.



ALthough the use and the eating
of Beans, were heretofore
forbidden by Pythagoras,
because that their Flowers being
spotted with a black Colour, did
represent a melancholly shape, and the
Souls of the dead that did dwell
therein: And though there be others
that reject them, affirming that the
use of them dulls the senses, and
causes troublesome Dreams: Yet
because they serve us in the Nature of
Victuals and Physick, I shall not
think my time and labour mis imployed,
if I communicate to the publick,
something on this Subject of


Nevertheless I don't mean to speak
of our European Beans; neither of the
wilde, nor those they sow, whether
they be Lupine, or Kidney Beans, or
whatsoever sort; of all which we were
ever wont to make use, either in the
Kitchin or in the Drugsters Trade, since
that the most famous Physicians and
Chyrurgions have employed them in
the Cure of Maladies internal as well
as external; viz. In the Dropsie, the
Stone, the Stoppage of the Urine, the
bloudy Flux, Loosness, Bruises, and
other Diseases.    Neither will I mention
the Bean of Egypt; which Dioscorides
speaks of, which the Crocodiles avoid
as being destructive to their Eyes,
witness Pliny. Neither of the Kidney Beans
of Paludan Garet, like the Cacao Nut
(whereof they make Chocolate) named
otherwise Coles by Clusius: Nor will I
treat of the purging Beans of Carthage;
or those of Ferdinand de Lopez of
Castagneda; which come from the Isle of
St. Thomas. I will speak for the present
of a certain Bean of Arabia called
Bon, whereof they make a Drink termed
Coffee, which was heretofore in use
amongst Arabians, and Egyptians;
and which is now a dayes in very great
request amongst the English, French,
and Germanes.

The first that makes mention of the
Property of this Bean, under the name
of Bunchum in the 9th. Century after the
Birth of our Saviour, was Zachary Mahomet
, commonly called Rhasio, a very
famous Arabian Physician, who has
composed a great many excellent Books;
to wit, Ten dedicated to king Almansor,
and Fifteen other learned Works.
He was the first, that did explain what
was the meaning of Bunchum, assuring
us that it is hot and dry, very good
for the Stomach, it hinders the
unpleasant smell of Sweat, and of
depilatory Oyntments.

After Rases divers other Physicians,
and particularly Avicenne, explains Bon
under the name of Bunchum.

As to the choice thereof, he says
that of a Lemmon colour, light, and
of a good smell is the best; that the
white and the heavy is naught, that it
is hot and dry in the first degree, and
according to others cold in the first
degree.    As to its operations and effects,
it fortifies the members, it cleans
the skin, and dries up the humidities
that are under it, and it gives an
excellent smell to all the Body.

Prosper Alpinus in his Book of the
Medicines and Plants of Egypt,
throughly describes the Bean Bon, and
the Drink they make thereof. For he
sayes the Grain Bon is in great use
among the Egyptians, of which they
prepare a decoction, whereof they
drink in their Country just the same as
we do the wine in our Taverns: And
tho they drink it all day long, yet their
manner is alwayes to take a large
quantity thereof in the morning fasting,
as hot as they can well indure it,
it being the general opinion amongst
them, that it warms and corroborates
the Stomach, and that it is a powerful
remedy to cure all the obstructions
of the Bowels.

It is an excellent Remedy against
the stoppage of Womens Courses, and
they make often use thereof, when
they don't flow so fast as they desire,
they sip a great deal of it, as hot as
they can drink it; alwayes taking
care to drink it by little and little:
for it is the Custome of every one
to drink it after that manner. He
proceeds further in it, saying, that the
drink called Coffee is much esteem'd
of in those Countries, the which they
prepare with certain black Grains,
which come very near to Beans. This
decoction they make two ways: the
one with the skin or the outside of the
aforesaid Grain, and the other with the
very substance of the Bean.    That
which is made of the skin is of more
force then the other that's made with
the Bean it self: I have seen the Tree
whereon it grows in the Orchard of a
Turkish Commander, who had caused
it to be transplanted out of Arabia, it
very much resembles the Plant, called
Priests Bonnet.    The quality of this
Drink is cold and dry, or rather temperate
in respect of cold, by reason of
some heat, which is found mingled
therewith: For this grain is composed
of two different substances; to wit,
the one gross and terren, whereby it
strengthens and corroborates, and the
other is thought to be made up of warm
parts, by which it heats, cleanses, and
opens.    This decoction has a taste not
much different from that of Succory,
tho it has a greater power to remove
all obstructions.    Having then took
notice, that the Women in the beginning
of their courses, to help evacuations,
drink of it by little and little, a
great quantity very hot, and in that
time make great use of this Drink.
Assisted and with this experience
I begun to employ it for all women
whatsoever, who by some cause or
other have their purgations ceas'd or
diminished, the which I have seen
experimented by very many with good
success; and thence I have learned,
that this sort of Medicine was excellent
for the stopping of Womens courses,
which proceeds from the obstructions
of the veins in the Matrice, having
beforehand provided for the purging
of the body.    This Drink took
in the morning fasting, mightily
provokes the Courses, and it is a quick
and certain remedy for those Women,
who not having their courses are
troubled with violent pains.

They prepare this decoction taking
a pound and a half of the Kernels of
this Grain, peeling off the skin they
roast it before the fire, and having
roasted or parched it, they boyl it in
twenty pintes of water. Others take
the Grain roasted or parched, and
beat to powder, and let it lie steept
in water a whole day: and without any
other infusion they boyl it half a way,
and having strain'd it, they keep it
in earthen pots stopt close, to make
use thereof when they shall want it.

They prepare this drink after the
same fashion, with the Bark of the
aforesaid Grain: which nevertheless
they take in a less quantity, viz. some
only six ounces, others nine, with
twenty pintes of Fountain water,
which they boyl half away.    This
Drink the Arabians call Caova: the
Berries (as I said before) grow on a Tree
much like our Priests Bonnet, tho the
leaves are thicker, harder, and greener,
and besides they are green all the year

They use this decoction to fortifie
the stomach, when it is too cold, and
to help digestion, as also to remove
the obstructions of the entrails: they
make use of it several days with good
success, in the cold swellings of the
Liver and Spleen.    Avicenne mentions
these Grains, and attributes the
same use to them; esteeming them to
be hot in the third degree, and dry
in the second; which does not seem
likely; since it has a sweet with a
kind of bitterness, without any
sharpness or acrimony.

We must now particularize the
preparation of this Drink made with
Coffee; tis true, I have spoken something
hereof before, but in general now I
will proceed to the particular.

The Grain Bon whose figure (with
the Tree whereon it grows) you see
here before you, being first well
skinn'd and pill'd, is put into an Iron
Instrument firmly shut together
with the coverlid; through this
Instrument they thrust a Spit, by the
means whereof they turn it before
the Fire, till it shall be well rosted;
after which having beaten it into
very fine Powder, you may make use
thereof, in an equal porportion according
to the number of the people that
will drink it: Viz. the third part of
a spoonful for each person, and put
it into a glass of boyling Water,
putting a little Sugar thereto: And


The Coffee Tree.
The Instrument.

after having let it boyl a small time,
you must pour it into little dishes of
porcelain or any other sort, and so
let it be drunk by little and little,
as hot as it can possibly be indur'd,
but especially fasting.

I have here explained in general
the Virtues of that wholesome drink
called Coffee;    tho it will not be
altogether unnecessary, to relate what
an eminent Arabian Physician speaks
thereof, who more particularly declares
these things that follow.

The fruit Bon (says he) is gathered
in the Month Ab, which being
took out of its shell is divided into
two parts, its Flowers are whitish,
this Bean is hot in the first degree,
and dry in the second, that is to say
its Skin, as to the kirnel, it is
altogether temperate, nevertheless it
dries, but moderately and plesantly:
Its drink is good against Catharrs and
Rheums, which trouble the Breast: In
the stoppage of Womens courses, and
Urine, against the boyling of the
blood, and the decaying of the
strength 'tis very necessary. This
drink has got the same esteem in
Denmark and Sweden: In which
Countries the great Lords make use of it
frequently.    And especially at Paris
there are a great many Shops that
sell Coffee publickly with this
following commendation.

The most excellent Virtues of the
Berry called

COffee is a Berry which only
grows in the desert of Arabia,
from whence it is transported into
all the Dominions of the Grand
Seigniour, which being drunk dries up all
the cold and moist humours, disperses
the wind, fortifies the Liver, eases the
dropsie by its purifying quality, 'tis
a Sovereign medicine against the itch,
and corruptions of the blood,
refreshes the heart, and the vital
beating thereof, it relieves those that
have pains in their Stomach, and
cannot eat: It is good also against
the indispositions of the brain, cold,
moist, and heavy, the steam which
rises out of it is good against the
Rheums of the eyes, and drumming
in the ears: 'Tis excellent also against
the shortness of the breath, against
Rheums which trouble the Liver, and
the pains of the Spleen: It is an
extraordinary case against the Worms:
After having eat or drunk too much:
Nothing is better for those that eat
much Fruit.

The daily use hereof in a little
while will manifest the aforesaid
effect to those, that being indisposed
shall use it from time to time.

'Tis related that the Turks
amongst other drinks, make use of
one which they greatly esteem, and
which they call Chaube, the same
with our Coffee as black as Ink, and
which is excellent, especially in the
illness of the Stomack: They are
wont to drink thereof in the Morning,
in publick places without any
difficulty, they take it in earthen or
Porcelain Porringers, their manner
is seting themselves down on the
ground in a Ring, every one drinks
in his turn: They set the Porringer
oftentimes to their mouth, but they
drink but a very little at a time, by
reason of its extream heat. The
ingredients they use in the making of
this Liquor, are certain fruits which
are call'd Buncho, by the Inhabitants
of the Country; being like (as to
the out side) in greatness, and
Colour to the Laurel Berries, having
two skins very thin, they say they
are brought from the Indies, 'tis a- [>a]
thing of small price amongst them.
There is observed to be two yellow
Grains within, which have each of
them their little several partition,
and resembles in Colour, Name, and
quality, the Bancha of Avicenne or the
Buncha of Rases.    And for my part
I shall think it to be the same thing
till the Learned shall better inform
me, this drink is very frequent
amongst them, for which cause there
be very many of them that sell it
in publick Shops, and a great many
trade abroad with this Fruit in
houses of entertainment.    They count
it as wholesome as we do our wormwood
Wine or other Physical drinks.

At Amsterdam this drink is sold
with great commendation of the
publick, for it preserves the radical
moistness, strengthens the Stomach,
cures sore eyes, pain in the Head,
Catharrs, Palsie, Gout, the Dropsie,
'tis good against the Scurvy, breaks
the Stone, and eases women with
Child. Monsieur Simon Pauli an
eminent Physician does altogether
condemn the use of Coffee, in a Treatise
concerning the abuse of Tobacco and
Tea, for as much as it effeminates
both the body and understanding,
which yet it does not by cooling it
too much, but because it insensibly
dries by reason of its natural Sulphure
wherewith it abounds as well
as Tobacco, and the Agnus Castus, or
Park-leaves, but we ought to interpret
what this Learned man says of the
abuse, and not of the right usage of
Coffee, otherwise one may as well
forbid the use of Rhubard, China,
and other Drugs which
grow out of Europe.

For my part I do no less blame
the abuse of Coffee, than that of
Wine: But I defend the lawful use
thereof, since it is evident that many
find this drink to be very profitable,
taken in the Morning fasting, with a
little Sugar, in a moderate quantity,
and to very good purpose, and daily
experience shews that it is very proper
to cure the indispositions of the
Stomach, stop Fluxes, and fortifies the
whole body.    If all those that make
use of Coffee, did it through a principal
of daintiness and nicety, the aforesaid
discourse would be sufficient
to satisfie their curiosities, but the
most part of those that use it are
reduc't thereto by necessity, and take
it rather as a Medicine and not as a
dainty dish: I thought I should do
them a pleasure to add hereto these
following remarks on the same Subject,
which I have gathered from the
reading of some particular Voyages,
by which one may see that all the
Authors, who have treated of the
properties of this sort of Bean, are
agreed in the same opinion, that it is
most excellent in the curing of several
indispositions, and most especially
for those which trouble the head
or Stomach.

Pietro Del Lavallè an Italian Gentleman
Sirnamed the illustrious Traveller,
speaks in two several places of his
Book concerning Coffee, but as that
which he says of it in the first place
is not very considerable, I'le pass it
over, and only insist upon his second
remark of Coffee, wherein speaking
of the Turkish Liquors, he utters
his mind in these Terms.    The
Turks have a drink of a black Colour,
which during the Summer is very
cooling, whereas in the Winter it
mightily heats and warms the
Body, yet without changing the
substance, and always continuing the
same drink, that they swallow hot
as it comes from the Fire, and they
drink it at long draughts, not
at dinner time, but as a kind of
dainty, and as it were to please their
palate, and to entertain themselves
at their ease in the Company of
their friends, and one cannot find
any meetings amongst them where
they drink it not. For which end
they keep a great fire on purpose,
near which they keep always ready
little Porringers of Porcelain filled
with this mixture; and when that
is hot enough, there be Servants
appointed for this end, who do nothing
else but carry these Porringers to
each man in the Company, as hot
as they can, giving them also some
Melon seed to chew, for the better
passing away the time; and with this
Seed and this Drink, which they call
Cahue, they divert themselves in their
Conversations, in publick Feasts or
particular Recreations, sometimes the
space of seven or eight hours. I
drank of it last Summer, as a refreshment,
with Melon Seed, and satisfaction
enough; I remember I have
read somewhere that the Antients
did likewise use such sorts of Liqours,
and if that be true, there is a great
deal of likely-hood that it is was [!] the
same thing: Because that in many
other fashions, as well of
this Country as abroad amongst
Forreigners, I find every day some
foot-steps and remainders of Antiquity.   
This Drink, as I remember,
is made with the grain or Fruit of
a certain Tree, which grows in
Arabia towards Mecca, and the fruit
it produces is called Cahue, whence
this Drink derives its Name, 'tis of
an oval shape, of the same bigness
as a middle-sized Olive, and to make
this composition they take sometimes
no more than the skin, which is
tender, sometimes only the Kernel,
which is like to beans; and they
are of an opinion, that of these two
juices, the one heats the to'ther cools,
but I cannot well call to mind
whether the refreshing is that of the
skin or the other.

The way to make the Drink thereof,
is thus: They burn the skin or
Kernel of this fruit as it best pleases
their fancy or palate, and they
beat it to a powder very fine,
of a blackish Colour, which is not
very pleasant to the eye-sight; this
Powder will keep a long time, and
is always to be found in the Drugsters
Shops.    When they would drink
thereof they boyl it in Water in certain
pots made on purpose, having a
long and slender pipe to pour it
readily into the little Porringers,
and when the Water has boiled
enough, they put therein such a quantity
of this powder, according to the
number of people that are to drink
of it: they let this powder boyl with
the Water sometime until it shall
have lost its bitter taste, which it would
always keep without a perfect
boyling.    Afterwards they pour out this
Liqour to be drunk as hot as the
Mouth and Throat can endure it, not
suffering themselves to swallow it but
by little and little, and at several times,
because of its actual heat: and after
it has taken the taste and colour of
this powder, whereof the thick sinks
down and remains at the bottom
of the Pot, to make use of it more
deliciously, they mingle with this
powder of Cahue, much Sugar,
Cinnamon, and Cloves well beaten,
which gives it an exquisite taste,
and makes it much more nourishing.
But yet without these dainties this
drink it [>is] agreeable enough to the taste
with the powder of Cahue alone;
and if you will believe them it contributes
notably to the health, helping
digestion, fortifying the Stomach,
stopping Rheums and Catharrs: These
are very good qualities if they be
effectual.    They also say that after
Supper it hinders drowsiness, and for
that reason those that would study
by Night do then drink thereof.
There is sold here by retail so great
a quantity of it, that they say the
impost upon Cahue, amounts to a
considerable sum to the Grand Seignours
profit: When I return I will
bring some of it with me, and I will
impart the Knowledge of this simple
to the Italians, which perhaps at
present is altogether unknown to
them.    If they should drink it with
Wine as they do with Water, I
durst say it would be the Nepenthe
that Homer mentions, which Helen
drunk there, it being for certain
that Cahue is brought hither from
that Country: And as this Nepenthe
was a charm against cares and
vexations, the same Cahue to this day
is used amonst the Turks as an
entertainment and past-time, making
the hours to slip away merrily in
conversation, intermingling with their
drink several pleasant and recreative
discourses, which unawares brings upon
their mind this forgetfulness of
sorrows which the Poet attributes to
his Nepenthe.

Thevenot in a Relation which he
has published of a Voyage into the
Levant set a particular Chapter apart
<<p.29>> [!]
which he imployes in describing the
Victuals, Drink, and Lodging of
the Turks, and after having mentioned
their other Liqours, speaks

The Turks have another drink
very common amongst them which
they call Cahue; whereof they make
use every hour in the day.    This
drink is make of a grain whereof we
will speak by and by.    They roast it
in a pan, or any other utensil upon
the fire, afterward they peel it, and
beat it into powder very fine, and
when they would drink thereof, they
take a brazen pot made purposely
which they call Ibrik, and having
fill'd it with water, thy [>they] boyl it, and
when it boyls they put of this powder
therein, for about two cups
of water one spoonfull, and when
that is boyled they take it quickly
from the fire, or remove it, otherwise
it would boyl over, for it rises
quickly, when it has thus had ten
or twelve boylings, they pour it into
little dishes of Porcelain, set in rank
on a Trencher of painted wood, they
bring it you boyling hot, and it
must be so drunk, but at several
times, otherwise it is not good.

This Liqour is black and bitter;
and smells a little of the burnt too,
every one drinks it by little and
little, for fear of scalding their
mouths, so that being in a Cavehane
(for so they name the places
where 'tis sold ready made) one
may receive a kind of musick and
divertisement by hearing the noise
that every one makes in sipping.
This drink is good to hinder the
fumes which rise from the stomach
into the head, and by consequence
to cure the indisposition thereof, and
for the same reason 'tis good
against sleeping. When our French
Merchants have a great many Letters
to write, and intend to labour all
night, they take in the evening a
dish or two of this Cahue, it is
good also to comfort the stomach
and help disgestion; in a word if you
will beleive the Turks 'tis good against
all indispositions whatever, and
assuredly it has at the least as much
virtue in it, as is appropriated to
Tea. For the taste, in drinking thereof
once or twice, one may easily
accustom ones self to it, and it will
no longer seem unpleasant; there
be some that mix therewith Cloves
and a few grains of Cardamome,
called in Latin Cardamomum minus,
which they name Cacoule, others put
therto Sugar, but this mixture which
makes it more pleasant renders it
less wholesom and profitable: they
drink a vast quantity thereof in the
Turkish Country; there is neither
rich nor poor that drinks less than
two or three cups a day, and 'tis one of
the things wherewith the husband
is obliged to furnish his Wife. There
be many publick Taverns of Cahue
where they boyl it in great Kettles; in
these places all sort of people may
come, without distinction of Religion
or quality, and 'tis no shame
to frequent these places, since many
go only to recreate themselves; there
be also without the house, Walls with
Mats on them, where those that will
may sit and see all that pass by,
and take the air, and there are some
that play on the Violin, Flute and
other Musick, who are hired by the
Master of the Cavehane to play and sing
the best part of the day, to bring company
together. When anyone that has
any breeding sees another of his
acquaintance come into the Cavehane
he will order the Master not to take
their mony, and that by one only
word, for when the Cahue is given
them he Cries Giaba, that is, Gratis.

Monsieur de Bourges in the account he
gives of the Voyage of the Bishop of
Beryte to Cochinchina, reckoning up
the incommodities they underwent,
in the march of the Caravan through
the Desert, sets down, as one of the most
insupportable, the want of water,
which they were put to much trouble
to find, and oftentimes they were
forc'd to use corrupted water.
Whereupon he sayes,

As the water which they meet with
is commonly naught, putryfied, to
correct the indisposition which it
causes in the stomach, the Turks take
a drink, called Coffee, which begins
to be used by the Europeans. This
drink is made of a little Bean which
grows in Arabia near Mecca in such
abundance, that it it transported into
all Asia, and almost all the places
where there be Mahometans who make
use of this drink instead of Wine,
whereas it sufficiently imitates the
effects, having the property to fortifie
the stomach, and to make easie the
digestion, and to purifie the
vapours of the Head. They roast this
Bean in a pan afterward they pound
it in a Mortas, [>Mortar,] after having
separated the bran by a fine Sieve, they
boyl this black and burnt powder in
water a little while, then they drink
it as hot as they can, though this Liqour
has not an agreable taste, but rather
bitter, yet it is much esteem'd of by
these people for the good effects they
find therein; which manifests the
care God has to furnish all Countryes
with the necessary things for the
advantage of men, and there is no
doubt but that there be other plants
in other Countries which have the
like virtues.

The end of Coffee.